Delphinium can be a real decoration for any garden. People have known this flower since ancient times. The genus of spur or liveliness (the so-called plant) includes more than 400 different crops belonging to both annual and perennial representatives. All of them are similar to a long flowering period, as well as the presence of cluster or panicled inflorescences.
Origin and description
The historical homeland of the plant is in Greece, the name itself came from the city of Delphi, next to which a huge number of these flowers grew. The name of the culture was given by Dioscorides, who was an ancient Greek physician and naturalist.
The plant has a straight hollow stem, which is not difficult to break, because tall species will need to make a garter. Dwarf plants have a height of 0.1 to 0.4 meters, tall - up to 2 meters, forest specimens - these giants (3 meters).
Delphinium leaf plates dissected, have serrated edges. They can be wedge-shaped or multifaceted. The color of the leaves varies depending on the color of the flower. If it is dark, then the leaves are brown or reddish, if light, then green. The arrangement of leaves is alternate, their quantity is affected by the quality of the soil and the species belonging of the larkspur.
Flowers may be:
The form itself is adapted for pollination by bumblebees, hummingbirds, to a lesser extent it is convenient for butterflies. By color, flowers can be blue or purple, cultural forms have a richer palette. Inflorescences are found both paniculate and pyramidal.
Flowers have a size of 2-8 cm, this is determined by species. One inflorescence contains from 50 to 80 flowers located on half of the stem part.
Types and varieties of delphinium
It is possible to divide representatives of the genus fern into 3 groups:
- The highest - the highest delphinium grows to 3 meters. Leaf plates have a saturated green color, the stem is covered with villi. Inflorescences are corymbose, dense;
- Large-flowered - are represented by an annual plant up to 0.8 m in height. The stem has a vertical branching. Delphinium begins to bloom in mid-summer;
- Field - also apply to annuals, height - up to 2 meters. The flowering period is July-September. Inflorescences are pyramidal, there are both double and simple flowers.
It is worth talking in more detail about some interesting varieties of larkspur.
Lovers of perennial plants should take a closer look at the Halahard variety. Distinctive features include tallness (about 2 meters) and the presence of snow-white terry flowers with a diameter of up to 7 cm. The cone-shaped inflorescence.
The plant is used in the design of borders and walls. Very well, the white delphinium is cut.
This shade is characteristic of a semi-bearded delphinium growing in Iran and Afghanistan; it is not hybrid. The plant reaches 120 cm in height. Those who want to grow a beautiful flower are advised to purchase the Sun Knight seed material. It is worth considering the feature that the yellow delphinium possesses - this is a huge heat loving.
You can meet such a representative in the Caucasus region. This perennial is also called beautiful delphinium. The height of the plant is up to 0.8 m, inflorescences are up to 0.45 m long, the shape is cystiform. Flowers can be either blue or purple.
Delphinium blue is represented by at least two more varieties and varieties: large-flowered or Chinese, "Royal", "Magic Fountain", "Pacific".
The variety, called "Summer Sky", will delight those plant lovers who want to grow light blue flowers. The height of the fern reaches 2 meters. Perennial culture prefers areas with good lighting and some shade during hot hours.
Delphinium blue begins to bloom in June and ends in July. Plants can be planted both singly and in a group. Another feature is the long standing in the cut. This includes the New Zealand Dolphinium.
This variety includes several varieties, but the Black Knight will look most effective. The culture reaches 2 meters in height, the inflorescences are long, cone-shaped, the color of the flowers is purple, closer to the lilac. In a flower garden, such a plant looks great with other representatives of perennial families.
Terry Delphinium is represented by the following varieties:
- "Black Knight";
- The Guardian
- "Purple flame."
You can find the pink variety by purchasing the following varieties:
- "Princess Carolina";
- "The Red Giant";
- "Dusky Maiden";
- "Deep Sweethearts";
- "Pledge of youth."
Pink Delphinium "Pledge of Youth" is represented by plants reaching a height of 0.7 meters, the flowers are pinkish in color. All other varieties are also pink in various saturations.
Transplant after purchase in open ground
Further, about the delphinium, many years of planting and care. It's time to understand the intricacies of growing a beautiful plant.
What you need for landing:
- fern bushes (it is best to take plants 3-4 years of age);
- landing place;
- supports for garter, if tall grades are preferred.
With the right choice of place for planting, a fern will always delight its owner with beautiful flowering. The basic rules are as follows:
- The presence of good lighting. The ideal area is where there is sunlight in the morning and evening, and shading in the afternoon. The culture tolerates heat well, but if the variety is brightly colored, it will fade under sunlight, which will lead to a loss of attractiveness and decorativeness.
- Draft proof. Among the dolphiniums there are a large number of tall species, wind gusts will easily break hollow stems.
- There should be no fluid stagnation. If moisture is not absorbed into the soil for a long time, then the root system will rot.
- Particular attention should be paid to the soil.
On a note. Larkspur prefers moderately moist loam, sandstone with a neutral or slightly acidic environment. The plant responds well to a large number of organics.
How to prepare the ground
When growing a dolphinium, if for some reason the soil on the site does not correspond to the ideal, it can be improved. For clay lands use:
- sand - 1-2 buckets per 1 m²;
- mineral fertilizers - 50-80 grams per 1 m²;
- humus or compost - 20-25 kg per 1 m².
Dried soil before planting liveliness, enriched per 1 m²:
- mineral top dressing - 40-50 grams;
- organic fertilizer - 10-15 kg.
Lime is added to acidic soils, and sulfur in granules is added to alkaline soils (30-50 grams per 1 m²).
Step-by-step landing process
Delphinium landing occurs according to the following principle:
- Digging the earth on a shovel bayonet.
- A 20 cm drainage layer is laid out.
- The excavated earth is mixed with fertilizers: compost - 1 bucket, ash - 2 cups, bone meal - 1 cup, superphosphate - 2 tablespoons. The quantity is calculated on 1 m².
- The fern seedlings are lowered into the ground so that the root neck is buried no more than 2-3 cm.
There are several options for breeding domestic fern.
Cuttings of plants in spring, after the growth of young shoots. Once they reach a height of 10 cm, they can be cut off at the root with a small particle. Cuttings are planted in a suitable container with soil, having deepened the root by 2 cm. The ideal temperature regime in the room is + 20-25 ° C.
Useful advice. The cuttings of liveliness are best rooted in light soil, consisting of peat and sand in the same proportion.
Putting the handle in a very sunny place is not recommended, it is best to choose a light shade. Shelter made of glass or polyethylene is used to create greenhouse-like conditions. After 14-21 days, the growth of the roots of the system begins. The duration of the process takes 28-35 days.
This method involves 2 options: the seeds are sown directly in the soil, or seedlings are first obtained from them, then the seedlings are transplanted to the site.
How to get seedlings
You can achieve flowering in the first year of perennial life by performing the following scheme:
- Sowing is carried out in February (in the presence of phytolamps for additional illumination) or you need to wait until the daylight hours increase.
- Seeds are treated before planting.
- The choice of capacity for sowing also matters. It is recommended to use seedling containers with a shallow depth, in which there are drainage holes.
- Soil preparation. You can use a universal mixture for seedlings or for succulents. For those who want to make it with their own hands: 2 parts of peat, 4 parts of garden or garden soil, 2 parts of humus or compost, 1 part of sand. The soil must be sieved, add perlite at the rate of 1 glass per 10 liters of earth.
- Soil disinfection is carried out (heating in the oven for 60 minutes). If the mixture is purchased, then it must be shed "Fitosporin."
- Fill the tanks with soil, sow the material on the surface, do not need to deepen and crush.
- For sprinkling, vermiculite or a little soil mixture is used.
- Cover the containers with lids or polyethylene, put the crops in a cool dark place. There they will begin to grow.
An important point. The use of peat pots for delphinium seeds is not suitable. The roots of seedlings master the earth slowly, this leads to acidification of the soil.
Seeds begin to germinate in the middle of the 2nd week. It is recommended that from 7 days (after planting) conduct daily checks of seedlings. As soon as the crops appear, they will need to be moved to a warmer room. Shelters also take off.
Delphinium flowers are obtained from seedlings under the following conditions:
- moist soil;
- daylight hours 12-14 hours;
- temperature + 18-20 ° С.
Pick-up is carried out when 2 true leaves appear. Sprouts need to be placed in individual small cups, the soil will be the same as that used for germination, you also need to add complex mineral fertilizer at the rate of 2 tablespoons per 10 liters of soil.
On a note. Before planting plants in a permanent place, it is recommended that they be fertilized with a suitable complex mineral fertilizer. If the solution enters the leaves of the delphinium, it must be washed off.
Landing in the garden
Delphinium flower should be planted in the second half of April, it is necessary to start with the preparation of the garden:
- dig soil 30 cm;
- to feed complex type;
- make grooves to a depth of 1.5 cm;
- make abundant watering;
- spread the seed material along the grooves;
- to fill up with dry soil.
To obtain faster and more friendly shoots, the garden bed is closed to create a greenhouse effect using agrofibre or a dark film. The beds need to be moistened periodically so that they do not dry out. You can remove the material after emergence in 21-28 days.
Dividing the bush
You need to choose shrubs that have reached 3-4 years of age. For reproduction, spring is best suited when the leaves begin to grow.
From the soil, it is necessary to extract the root and divide so that each delenka has one shoot, one sleeping bud and many roots. Landing is carried out at a prepared place.
Delphiniums care and cultivation do not involve complex procedures, the main thing is to do everything regularly.
During the growing season, one fern consumes 65 liters of fluid. If summer does not pamper with rainfall, then once a week each shrub is watered with 2-3 buckets of water. More often, but less abundantly, the culture is watered when inflorescences form. Lack of moisture leads to the fact that some buds do not fully develop, and inflorescences form with voids.
Need to know! Watering is carried out only at the root, because water should not fall on the green parts of the delphinium.
With the onset of late autumn, with insufficient rainfall, abundant watering is also carried out so that the wildlife can prepare for the upcoming wintering. After watering and drying the soil, loosening is necessary.
Flowers are fed 2 times a season:
- at the beginning of spring, urea, potassium sulfate (2 tablespoons of each component) and 1 tablespoon of superphosphate are added per 1 m²;
- before flowering begins, phosphorus and potassium top dressing is 1 tablespoon per 1 m².
Important! In August, fertilizer should be stopped so that there is no stimulation of growth and continued flowering. Plants should plant flower buds for next season.
To get larger and denser inflorescences, it is necessary to thin out the delphinium. It is necessary to get rid of weak shoots, so that in the end there are 3-5 stems. This applies to both tall and undersized varieties.
Fragile stems and heavy inflorescences easily break, so you need to take care of the garter. The bush is recommended to be fixed at different heights.
After flowering is completed, the shoots begin to die, and their appearance leaves much to be desired. If it is not planned to collect seed material, then the stems need to be cut and machined places of cuts. After some time, some varieties of delphinium can grow shoots and bloom a second time.
In the autumn, pruning of shoots is not necessary. If water gets into the hollow stems, then the matter may end in the decay of the root system.
After the flowering is completed and the leaves are dried, it is necessary to prune the stems at a height of 30 cm from the ground. All cavities are smeared, for this you need to use clay or garden var.
If the variety is frost-resistant, then special shelters are not equipped. Protection is required only for young plants. The base of the shrubs is covered with straw or lapnik, grooves are made next to the plants so that excess water does not harm the root system.
Despite the fact that the care and cultivation of the delphinium require some effort, they are worth it. Spurs will become a real decoration of the garden, which is not ashamed to show guests.