As short as Japanese quince bushes are called, growing on garden plots and pleasing to the eye with densely planted red, orange or white flowers. The proper name "henomeles" scratches the ear with too scientific sounding, the melodiously tender "cydonia", or quince, does not reflect the essence, and the definition of "northern lemon" characterizes only the attitude to fruits, losing sight of the charm of flowering bushes. At the same time, a rare gardener, having once seen this plant, does not begin to mentally try it on his site.
What is Japanese quince
Small deciduous trees or shrubs belonging to the genome Henomeles of the Pink family. Wild representatives are found in China and Japan. In Europe and North America, these plants have been familiar with these plants for more than two hundred years due to the excellent flowering and the ability of the genomeles to form dense natural borders. In the Soviet Union, Japanese quince under the name of cydonia has spread in the Baltic states, especially in Latvia.
By mistake, instead of ordinary quince seeds (lat. Cydonia), henomeles seeds were sent. For a long time it was cultivated there as cydonia, although a misunderstanding was quickly clarified. Investigated the properties of the fruits and determined that the content of vitamin C, carotene, B vitamins and organic acids exceeds lemon. From here comes the other common name of genomeles - Northern lemon.
The shoots of most varieties have thorns, which provides planting and protective function.
The height of the bushes, depending on the place of growth, ranges from one to six meters. There are creeping forms. On the territory of Russia rarely grows more than one and a half - two meters. The trunk and branches are usually brown, sometimes with a reddish tinge. Shoots are covered with spikes. The glossy leaves of the genomeles are rounded, ovoid-oval or lanceolate in shape. They have serrated or serrated edges.
Flowers, magnificent in color and appearance, with a delicate aroma attract bees. The color of the petals is different for different varieties. There are white, pale pink, orange and red. The shape is simple or terry. In a simple flower there are five petals, from twenty to fifty bright thin stamens and a pistil consisting of five fused pistils. Flowering of genomeles is usually observed in April-May.
Photo gallery: flowering henomeles
- White Terry Flowers Genomeles Yukigoten
- Terry flowers make the henomeles bush even more attractive
- Flowering quince japanese
- White-pink cloud with a delicate aroma
- Noble dark pink flowers of the northern lemon
- Henomeles with white flowers is shyly handsome
- Henomeles shoots densely sprinkled with flowers
- Coral flowers of quince japanese
Colorful flowering and compact bushes led to the use of Japanese quince in landscape design. Henomeles looks great in the neighborhood of other plants, in single plantings and as a border.
Photo Gallery: Japanese quince in landscape design
- The magnificence and self-sufficiency of the henomeles bush
- Japanese quince among stones differs in severity and nobleness of lines
- A strict border of cut bushes looks great
- Henomeles is not lost in the neighborhood
Despite the fact that the plant was known and was actively used in the formation of gardens, the valuable properties of the fruit were not known. The small fruits of the genomeles are shaped like an apple or quince. Color lemon yellow, orange or yellow with a blush.
Genomeles fruits are a valuable raw material for the food, pharmaceutical and perfume industries due to their rich chemical composition. They found biologically active substances (ascorbic acid, carotene, B vitamins), organic (malic, citric, tartaric, fumaric, chlorogenic, quinic) and aromatic (caffeic, coumaric isomers) acids, pectic, phenolic, minerals, carbohydrates, fatty oilsV.P. Petrova
Wild fruits and berries. - M .: Forest industry, 1987. - S. 172-175
The average weight of fruits, depending on the variety and growing conditions, ranges from 30-40 to 150-300 grams. The surface is oily. The pulp is very dense, acidic, has a sharp citrus aroma and contains a large amount of pectin. In the seed chambers there are many small brown seeds.
The ripening of the genomeles fruits occurs at the end of September or October.
Almost no Japanese quince variety ripens completely in the middle zone of Russia. But the peculiarity of this plant is that the fruits can be harvested unripe, the amount of ascorbic acid after eating the fruits does not decrease, and according to some information, it even increases during storage.
Due to the sour taste and dense pulp, henomeles in raw form is not used in food. Japanese quince is used in the preparation of compotes, preserves, jams.
For a long time she suffered, harvesting the fruits of zidonia. The dense pulp did not give in to the knife and resisted as best it could. The process of processing aromatic zidonia more and more resembled sophisticated torture, until a friend suggested a simple and easy way to make jam. The washed ripe fruits of the genomeles need to be placed in an enamel pan, pour a small amount of boiling water, cover with a lid and put on fire. A few minutes after boiling, the pulp is boiled. The contents of the pan are cooled and passed through a colander. The seed chambers are easily detachable and the thick aromatic jelly confiture is ready. Sugar is added to taste. If desired, henomeles is combined with an apple, pear or plum.
Northern lemon, unlike the thermophilic namesake, is an unpretentious plant. It is not demanding on the composition of the soil and grows even on poor lands. It has good winter hardiness. Typically, representatives of this genus have deep and branched roots, due to which they are able to tolerate drought. Virtually no damage by pests. There are rare references to the defeat of aphids and gall midges.
Video: about growing Japanese quince
Japanese quince planting
Henomeles is not very picky. The only condition that must be observed when planting Japanese quince seedlings is lighting. In the shade, the plant bears fruit worse.
For genomeles, sunny areas of light, protected from the north wind, are chosen. You can plant in the spring and autumn. Seedlings are usually planted in a continuous trench at a distance of 90-100 cm, but single plantings are also used. The depth of the pit is 40 cm, the width is 50 cm. Optimum soil acidity: pH 5.0-5.5. Bushes also grow on clay lands, so planting pits do not always drain, but it is noted that the introduction of humus in a ratio of 1: 1 leads to an increase in the size of the fruit.
Some gardeners recommend shortening the roots of seedlings by 20-40 cm before planting and treat them with clay mash. Others believe that they do not need to be cut, but rather dust with Kornevin to avoid stress during landing. These recommendations apply only to plants with an open root system. Contained seedlings have minimal planting stress.
- Dig a hole 50x50x40 cm.
- Humus is mixed with soil in a ratio of 1: 1.
- They plant a bush without deepening the root neck.
- They fill the ground, trampling tightly and forming an irrigation hole.
- Abundantly water and mulch the trunk circle.
Immediately after planting, the bush is cut to a height of 20-25 cm.
Reproduction of Japanese Quince
Genomeles can be propagated vegetatively and by seeds (generatively). During vegetative propagation, henomeles retains the varietal characteristics of the mother plant. But getting seedlings from your own seeds is also important. They are more adapted to local conditions, have new properties that are different from the parent ones, which is used for selection, and can be used as stock.
Vegetative propagation of genomeles
- root offspring
- dividing the bush.
All of these methods are quite simple.
For cuttings in the first half of summer, stem cuttings 20-25 cm long are cut. Both young and mature cuttings take root equally well.
To obtain cuttings:
- Cut the shoot lignified or green.
- Remove the apical kidney.
- Depending on the length of the shoot, one or more cuttings are harvested.
- Planted in the ground at an angle so that at least two kidneys were underground.
They are planted in small greenhouses for rooting, after which they are planted in a permanent place.
Another way is more habitual for me. In the fertilized soil, I plant the stalk to a depth of 10-15 cm at an angle of 45about to the surface of the earth. Watering. I close the top with a three-liter jar. I try not to touch the jar until sprouts appear, in order to maintain high humidity. By the autumn, the young plant is ready. I mulch him with humus and cover for the winter.
Propagation by root offspring
The root offspring is separated from the mother bush and transplanted to the right place. The method is not difficult even for beginner gardeners.
Overgrown bushes of genomeles with low branches are conveniently propagated by layering. Sprouts are sprinkled with humus and periodically watered. For greater reliability, you can dig a groove, lay a branch and cover with a layer of humus. Over the summer, cuttings take root, and in the fall they can be separated from the mother bush and planted in a new place.
There are some modifications to this method of reproduction.
Japanese quince is also propagated by dividing the bush. For better rooting of the slices, it is recommended to sprinkle with Kornevin. Only bushes obtained in this way do not always take root in a new place.
Generative reproduction of Japanese quince
Fresh henomeles seeds can be sown in the fall in the ground. At the same time, their germination will be low. When sowing seeds in spring, cold stratification is required. Seeds are kept for at least two to three months in wet sand at a temperature of 0-3aboutC. Seedlings are obtained for breeding work or for use as stock.
Depending on the goals, there are cropping:
Formative is used in cases where henomeles is grown as a border or in landscape design. This is the field of activity of professional gardeners. For summer residents and amateurs, it is important to remember that the main fruiting occurs on the young shoots of Japanese quince, so old branches are removed. Usually leave 13-15 shoots no older than four years. For better illumination of the bush, thickening branches are removed. Sanitary pruning is carried out annually. At the same time, frozen, broken and weak shoots are removed. According to experts, in the central zone of Russia freeze all branches that are outside the snow cover. On this part of the shoot, flower buds die, and flowering is observed only near the trunk.
Pruning is carried out in the spring before the start of sap flow. They also practice autumn pruning. Usually it is carried out no later than a month before the expected cold weather. Some gardeners in the fall quite radically cut the shoots, leaving no more than 15-35 cm. In this case, the bush is completely covered with snow in the winter, and in spring it is covered with flowers in a friendly manner.
When there is little space in the garden, but there is a desire to see a variety of varieties of henomeles, they resort to vaccination. As a stock, they use either their own seedlings or plants from their native family: quince, apple, pear. There is a mention of mountain ash and hawthorn stocks for henomeles.
Experienced gardeners recommend immediately thinking over the place where the henomeles bush will be planted, since then it is difficult to transplant it. There are several reasons for this. This plant is most often prickly, you have to cut the shoots to dig in the bush. Henomeles has a powerful root system that provides the plant survival in drought conditions, but when transplanting it is impossible to dig a bush so as not to damage the roots. Most often, in a new place, transplanted plants do not take root.
For planting, you can use your own shoots or layering. Moreover, all the properties of the mother plant are preserved.
Video: gardener opinion on Japanese quince transplant
How to grow henomeles
Japanese quince is surprisingly unpretentious and hardy. It grows on the poorest soils and steadily overcomes the disadvantages of watering. Almost all varieties grown in Russia are resistant to diseases and pests. There are mentions of aphids. When parasitic insects appear, the bushes should be sprayed 2-3 times with Biotlin according to the instructions.
The main condition for the normal growth, flowering and fruiting of the genomeles is illumination. In the shade, the bushes bloom poorly and bear fruit. Flowering is also affected by the level of snow cover. If the shoots remain over the snow, then the flower buds die, so some gardeners recommend bending branches and sheltering.
If you plant several bushes of genomeles, you can get a rich harvest of fruits due to cross-pollination of plants, as well as due to the attraction of more pollinating insects. In areas where there are no insects, bushes can bloom, but there will be no harvest. Fruiting of genomeles begins at the age of three. If the bush is older and does not bear fruit, a weak honey solution is often used to attract insects. One tablespoon of aromatic honey is dissolved in a liter of water and the bush is sprayed. You can also process other fruit trees and shrubs.
When growing henomeles for the sake of aromatic fruits, they feed bushes to get a plentiful harvest. For this, organic or mineral fertilizers are used.
The easiest way is to mulch the trunk circle with humus. At the same time, weed growth is suppressed, and the soil receives beneficial substances at each watering. Watered with infusion of weed grass or slurry. Nettles, comfrey, chums and other herbs are poured with water in a ratio of 1: 2, insist for several days until fermentation begins. The fluid is decanted, water is added in a double to triple volume and applied under the bush. And the manure is poured with water 1: 3, left to ferment, decanted, diluted 1: 7 and watered.
When applying mineral fertilizers, they adhere to the general rule: nitrogen is used only in the spring, potash and phosphorus can be used from the beginning of summer to autumn. Fertilizers are applied strictly according to the instructions, observing safety measures. Some gardeners feed bushes two to three times per season. Others believe that you should not get carried away with mineral fertilizers, but it is better to bring ash at the rate of 500 ml per bush and half a bucket of rotted manure or compost to each bush.
Features of planting and care in various regions, including the Moscow region, Siberia
According to gardeners, henomeles bushes can tolerate frosts up to 30aboutFROM.This allows you to grow Japanese quince in places with a harsh climate. To prevent freezing of the shoots, they either shelter the plants or bend the branches in advance so that the bush will then be completely covered with snow. To do this, they pin branches to the ground with wire clamps or simply tilt the shoots and put a load on top.
When planting, it is important to choose the illuminated places on the south side of the house or the southern slopes, if the site is on a hill. Genomeles grows on clay and light soils. Top dressing and watering contribute to the increase in size and ripening of fruits.
Summer residents who prefer to spend a weekend at the cottage without bothering with gardening, just plant a bush in a sunny place, prune in early spring, and periodically water it. Some water 2-3 times during the whole season in the absence of rain.
In the conditions of a short summer, the fruits are harvested unripe. They ripen when lying down.
The climate in the Moscow region is quite mild, and in the summer there are no problems with growing genomeles. Watered with prolonged drought, but it is very rare for the suburbs. It is important to take care of the shelter of the bushes so that flower buds are not affected in winters with little snow. If you could not get to the site for one reason or another, do not get upset. The bush is easily restored. It is necessary to cut frozen twigs in the spring, and the genomeles will delight with pruned flowers.
In Western Siberia, the weather is characterized by sharp changes in temperature. From May to July it is often hot, so Japanese quince is watered so that the ovary does not fall. Watering is usually carried out in the first decade of June and in July. If there is no rain, you can repeat watering in August.
Main types and varieties of genomeles
Genomeles has about fifteen species. The most common of them:
- Genomeles Katayansky;
- Genomeles Japanese or quince Japanese (synonym: Henomeles Mauleia or quince low);
- Genomeles is beautiful;
- Genomeles proud or superior (superba).
The most widespread in our country is Japanese quince. She is the most unpretentious and does not form tall bushes. Growing other species is difficult.
Overview of some varieties of henomeles:
- Geisha Girl - a small bush with peach double flowers. It grows in partial shade. It is used to decorate the garden in single plantings and in the ensemble. The fruits are used in blanks.
- Northern lemon, or Yukigoten. Genomeles variety with large white double flowers. Growing slowly. Exceptionally beautiful low spreading bush. The fruits ripen late, have a pleasant citrus aroma. Marmalade and jams are prepared from them.
- Tsido is a small shrub with coral flowers. Variety bred in Latvia. It is magnificent as an ornamental plant, and due to its high productivity and winter hardiness, it is grown for the industrial production of fruits.
The Genomeles Albatross was included in the State Register in 2017. This is a thornless variety with white simple flowers. The fruit size is medium and large. Resistant to disease and drought. Recommended for cultivation in the Central and Central Black Earth regions.
Photo Gallery: Northern Lemon - A Source of Vitamins and Aesthetic Pleasure
- Geisha Girl's delicate bushes bloom and in partial shade.
- Some varieties of genomeles resemble a lemon in shape
- Slowly growing Yukigoten blooms with delicate white foam
- Harvest grade of Genomeles Zido
The fruits of the genomeles resemble quince in appearance, and compete with lemon in aroma and vitamin content. By unpretentiousness and noble beauty of delicate flowers, they convey the spirit of the East. And to grow this beauty and benefit in your garden is not difficult.