When installing an outdoor pool, the first thing you need to solve is the problem of cleanliness and safety of water. The aquatic environment is the habitat of thousands of microorganisms, which can only be removed with the help of special installations. During the construction process, indoor stationary pools are provided with powerful filter systems that support the circulation and purification of liquids around the clock, and filters for smaller outdoor pools, but convenient to install and maintain, are provided for household outdoor structures.
Why is a filtration system necessary?
Natural water rarely has qualities that are ideal for a healthy swim, so there are many ways to clean it, including chemical disinfection, mechanical cleaning, ozonation and filtration - the most popular way for suburban use.
Water must be cleaned regardless of its source of water supply. You should not assume that tap water is saturated with lime and iron particles, and the fluid from the well or from the surface of the lake is flawless in its characteristics. In "living" water, the probability of propagation of pathogenic bacteria is increased, since chemical treatment is completely absent. In addition, water quality is sharply reduced due to the ingress of large particles of dirt and dust on the water surface of an unclosed pool.
According to its characteristics, bathing water should be close to its drinking counterpart, since during the adoption of water procedures it enters the eyes, ears, mouth, nose and is constantly in contact with the skin. The quality of a liquid can be determined even without special equipment: it is transparent (you can see images or cracks at the bottom of the pool), it does not have a smell caused by the decomposition of microorganisms, and it has a brown or green hue.
However, it is extremely difficult to determine some properties “by eye” - this refers to the content of salts in its composition or to the level of increased acidity. To achieve maximum purity, use such processing methods as:
- multistage mineral cleaning;
- softening the composition.
Filters are used at various stages of cleaning, starting with the mechanical collection of leaves from the water surface with special devices, ending with the distillation and neutralization of acidity at the finishing stage.
Types of filters for outdoor pools
Despite the various fillers and distinctive characteristics, all filters have the same purpose - to purify water from harmful substances, to retain maximum pollution and unnecessary particles. As a filter layer, granular granular materials are used: sand, anthracite, pieces of crushed gravel or diatomite.
View # 1 - sand devices
Due to the availability of the sand filter, anyone can buy it, the minimum cost of current models is 4800 rubles. Of course, such devices are designed for a relatively small amount of filtered water and are suitable for cleaning compact inflatable and frame structures. Powerful aggregates costing up to 1 million rubles are provided for larger tanks, but expensive production models are not needed for domestic use.
When choosing a sand filter, pay attention to the filler. It can only be sand, sand with particles of gravel, as well as inclusions of anthracite or carbon. The more diverse the filler, the higher the level of purification. Quartz sand needs to be completely changed every 3 years, but there are options with a rarer replacement, for example, glass sand is poured only every 5 or 6 years.
In the simplest designs, only one layer of sand (0.5-0.8 mm) is poured, in more complex devices - 3-5 layers of different fractions. First, water passes through large crystals, completes the cleaning in a fine-sandy pillow. In expensive models, an additional absorbent layer may be present.
Each type of material has its own characteristics. For example, granular anthracite, which is almost 90% carbon, is distinguished by sufficiently large and peaked granules. Unlike sand, they do not form a dense cushion, so during the filtering process there is minimal load loss, but the cleaning speed increases.
What to do if the filter is clogged? This will happen in 1-2 weeks of active use of the pool. Each device has a reverse cleaning function, which will require additional water to perform. Owners of their own wells should not worry, and users of a centralized water supply will have an additional waste of budget funds.
Sand and other fillers are sold in specialized stores, a 25-pound bag of quartz material costs about 400 rubles, glass - about 2 times more expensive. Such a filter can even be built independently! How to do this, watch the video:
View # 2 - diatomaceous systems
Manufacturers of diatomaceous filtration plants claim that the use of fine powder (diatomaceous earth) allows to achieve maximum purity of water. Let's try to understand the technical characteristics of this type of filter and understand whether it is worth buying the most expensive equipment for a country pool.
The fine fraction of the cleaning particles retains the smallest contaminants up to 1 micron in size, which is an indisputable advantage over sand counterparts, although the rest of the principle of operation of diatomite devices is no different. The filler layer is in self-cleaning steel elements coated with polypropylene. Water passes through the diatom "pillow", is purified and discharged back into the pool, enriched with silicon.
They talk and write a lot about the benefits of silicon water. Experts say that it has a whole set of useful properties:
- neutralizes chloride compounds;
- destroys pathogens;
- precipitates heavy metals;
- interferes with the reproduction of algae;
- has a strengthening effect on the human body.
Thanks to thorough cleaning and the "magic" properties of silicon water, there is no need for additional chemical disinfection. Thus, overpaying for a diatomite device, in addition to perfectly purified water, you get an additional bonus in the form of a healing effect.
View # 3 - compact cartridge systems
If you don’t have the opportunity to constantly flush the filters and the pool water is relatively clean and does not require thorough disinfection, buy an inexpensive cartridge filter. It is a small elongated installation in the form of a bulb with a very simple internal device. Under the cover is a compartment for a replaceable cartridge and a plastic bag for rubbish. Water seeps through the filter material of the cartridge, and large impurities and small particles settle on the bottom, collecting in a bag.
There are many types of cartridges, differing in appearance and characteristics. For example, carbon elements perfectly eliminate unpleasant odors, and ion exchange resin inserts kill bacteria. But for pools it is preferable to use a special consumable with polyphosphate salt.
Sooner or later, the cartridge will become unusable, and the bag will become completely clogged with debris. Cleaning is simple: rinse the cartridge plates under running water and clean the bag of dirt and return it to its place. After several cleaning procedures, the replacement element must be replaced. It can be purchased in a specialized store at a price of 125 rubles. Manufacturers recommend replacing cartridges as they wear out, that is, a replacement can happen in a week or a month. For hygienic reasons, it is better not to delay buying a new item.
How to choose the right filter pump?
All types of filters can be an integral part of filter pumps - devices for organizing the circulation and purification of water in the pool. The equipment is equipped with a powerful engine with waterproof insulation, which ensures the movement of water. Filters for primary or deep cleaning are included, and some are sold separately. It is important to take into account power and speed indicators so that by mistake you do not equip a weak pump with an excessively effective filter or vice versa.
Most self-priming pumps have built-in filters designed to clean slightly contaminated water, more thorough treatment requires the purchase of additional equipment or chemical disinfection. The equipment is placed in a special container and buried in the ground next to the pool half or fully in such a way as to allow unhindered access.
When buying, pay attention to the restrictions. Most of the models perform functions subject to the following indicators:
- tº of air - up to 60ºC;
- tº of water - up to 40ºC;
- pressure - up to 2.5 (3.5) bar.
Preferred models with continuous operation.
Conventional circulation and centrifugal pumps pump water without the possibility of cleaning it, so the filter must be purchased additionally, and it is better if there are two of them. The first serves for preliminary filtration and protection of equipment; it performs screening of abrasive and long-fiber fragments. The second more thoroughly cleans the water from suspended matter and fine particles and ensures the safety of swimming.
What is a skimmer and do you need it?
A simple but useful device - a skimmer - can purify large contaminants of up to 8% of the pool water, which is why it is often used together with filtering equipment. In appearance, it resembles a plastic or steel tank with a drain in the lower part, the upper part is equipped with a hole for water intake.
Some skimmer models have advanced features:
- collect garbage from the surface of the water;
- They are a kind of “beacons” for determining the depth and level of water;
- serve as equipment for chemical cleaning.
There are two types of skimmers: mounted and built-in. Both types are suitable for open-type pools, however their choice depends on the design of the pool. For a stationary tank it is better to use an integrated system with a water intake located along the sides, and for inflatable and frame models mounted devices that have special mounts are preferable. There are exceptions when a monolithic pool is already installed without a cleaning system - rough filtration can also be done using attachments.
Installation of hinged skimmers for inflatable pools and frame structures is very simple: an adjustable clamp is mounted directly on the side, and the filter is lowered into the water, placing it on the surface of the water or slightly lower. When installing any type of device, it is necessary to take into account the prevailing wind direction, so that no stagnant zones are created, and skimmers cover the entire area of garbage accumulation.
Thus, when choosing a filtration system, focus on the type of pool, its size and volume of water. For compact designs, an inexpensive sand or cartridge filter with a pump is sufficient; for a large outdoor pool in the courtyard of the house, equipment including several filters, a powerful pump, a heating system and a control unit is needed.