Jerusalem artichoke is called an earthen pear, an underground artichoke, a sun root, a bulb, a boulevard, Chinese potatoes and barbs. It is compared with potatoes, sunflowers and even turnips. How can such different characteristics be combined in one plant? What is Jerusalem artichoke really and does it deserve the attention of gardeners?
Jerusalem artichoke (or earthen pear) is a herbaceous perennial. Outwardly, it looks like a sunflower, not for nothing that its official name is Tuberous Sunflower. But tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are edible. They have a juicy sweetish flesh, reminiscent of the taste of cabbage poker or turnips. Under one plant there can be up to 30 tubers of different weights (mainly from 30 to 100 g). Depending on the variety, they have a different color - from white to reddish-purple.
Plant height can also be different - from 0.6 to 4 m. This depends not only on the variety, but also on the growing conditions. In one nest, several erect sturdy stems pubescent with short hairs are formed. Jerusalem artichoke roots penetrate deep into the soil, they tolerate winter frost and drought. In one place, an earthen pear can grow for several decades.
Photo gallery: the appearance of Jerusalem artichoke
- Jerusalem artichoke flowers are collected in baskets with a diameter of 2-10 cm
- Jerusalem artichoke has dentate petiolate, pubescent leaves
- Jerusalem artichoke is prone to lush growth, therefore, it needs regular planting and control
- Jerusalem artichoke tubers can be stored directly in the ground, digging as necessary
A bit of history
Jerusalem artichoke began its journey around the world from the North American continent. Here he grew not only in the wild, but was also cultivated by local Indians.
It is believed that the plant got its name from the name of the tribe of the Brazilian Indians Tupinamba.
In the XVII century, the vegetable came to England, and then to France. The plant quickly spread throughout Europe. Due to its productivity and accessibility, it was widely used in cooking and livestock feed. After the appearance of potatoes, Jerusalem artichoke surrendered its leading position, but in the 19th century gourmets gave a new wave of fame to earth pear.
The use of Jerusalem artichoke
All parts of the plant are used. Jerusalem artichoke tubers are popular in cooking: they are fried, dried, canned, boiled, and added raw to salads.
From root vegetables, leaves and flowers, you can make tea or stewed fruit, and from the stems of the plant squeeze a sweet juice that resembles molasses.
In the United States, an earthen pear is used to make a coffee drink similar to chicory.
In medicine, the fruits of earthen pears are used as a means of strengthening immunity, helping to normalize the intestines, stimulating blood circulation, removing toxic substances and salts of heavy metals from the body. Jerusalem artichoke is recommended for dietary nutrition in diseases such as colitis, pancreatitis, enteritis, diarrhea, heartburn.
Jerusalem artichoke has occupied its niche in cosmetology as well. It has a high concentration of vitamins, beneficial acids and trace elements, which is why it is used as an effective natural skin and hair care product.
Beekeepers value this culture for their long flowering. Tubers and herbs of Jerusalem artichoke can be used as feed raw material. The green mass of the plant is silted, mixed feed is made on its basis, and used to feed wild animals in hunting farms.
Jerusalem artichoke is increasingly used as an interesting element of landscape design. Using a hedge from this plant, you can mask an unsightly site, create a decorative, stylish, long-blooming wall that will revitalize your site until frost, protect it from the cold northern winds and serve as a support for climbing plants.
The benefits and harms of Jerusalem artichoke
A wide range of uses of Jerusalem artichoke is associated with its valuable chemical composition. The tubers of this vegetable contain a variety of elements: proteins, carbohydrates, healthy fiber, starch, vitamins, macro- and microelements, a small amount of fats and ash substances.
Root crops can harm people with individual intolerance, as well as during an exacerbation of peptic ulcer, with bowel obstruction and flatulence. It should be noted that today the useful and harmful properties of the vegetable are not fully understood, therefore, the maximum effect can be achieved by using an earthen pear in a balanced nutrition complex.
Video: useful properties of Jerusalem artichoke
Varieties and types
In the world there are about 300 varieties and hybrids of earthen pear. They have many similar biological characteristics, but they differ from each other in the following positions:
- amount of green mass;
- color and taste of tubers.
Varieties in relation to the mass of tubers to the amount of green mass can be divided into 3 groups:
- tuberous, in which the mass of root crops is about 45% of the total crop;
- silage. They are dominated by a mass of greenery, which is about 70%;
- tuber-silage, with good yield of root crops and green mass.
The main problem that breeders are trying to solve is the cultivation of varieties with a compact placement of root crops that do not spill deep and wide and do not turn Jerusalem artichoke into an indestructible weed. Working on feed varieties, they try to reach the maximum thickness of the stem and, thus, increase the yield of green mass of the plant.
Scientists crossed Jerusalem artichoke with sunflower and bred a new plant, which was called topis sunflower.
The State Register of Breeding Achievements Approved for Use in Russia includes 5 varieties of this crop.
Table: The main varieties of Jerusalem artichoke
|Grade name||Bush characteristic||Tuber Characterization||Ripening time||Green yield||Tuber yield|
|Interest||Powerful, erect, middle-branched, bristly stems.||White tubers with smooth skin and medium-sized deep eyes.||Late ripening||about 430 kg / ha||more than 260 kg / ha|
|Omsk white||The main stem has an average height (1.9-2.3 m) and moderate thickness, is poorly pubescent with stiff hairs, and is characterized by medium bushiness.||White, spherical, medium in size, weighing about 50 g.||Mid-season||n / a|
|Pasko||Medium-sized (0.9-1.5 m), highly bushy.||White, oval, weighing up to 80 g.||Late ripening||350 c / ha||300 c / ha|
|Early maturing||The stem is well branched, green with anthocyanin spraying.||White, rounded with a smooth skin.||Early||268 kg / ha||250 c / ha|
|Solar||Strongly branched stems reaching 2 m.||White, elongated oval, weighing up to 60 g.||Mid-season||315 kg / ha||408 kg / ha|
Photo gallery: Jerusalem artichoke varieties grown in Russia
- Jerusalem artichoke Interest is recommended for cultivation in the southern regions of the country
- Omsk white variety is suitable for widespread cultivation
- Pasko refers to tuberous varieties
- The Skorospelka variety is suitable for mechanized processing and is recommended for cultivation in central regions
- Jerusalem artichoke has a high yield - more than 400 kg / ha
It is rather difficult to get varietal material of Jerusalem artichoke, therefore, gardeners often share planting material with each other and, thus, distribute local bessorti plants.
Jerusalem artichoke breeding
Jerusalem artichoke can be propagated in several ways. The main one is vegetative, that is, propagation by tubers or their parts. For a quality and plentiful crop, you should use a healthy medium-sized planting material.
If necessary, the division of tubers is cut so that in each division there were at least two points of growth. Tuber division is only possible when planting a plant in spring. When planting in autumn, cutting planting material is not recommended.
With a lack of planting material, you can use the plant’s eyes, from which seedlings are previously grown.
The seed method of reproduction is also used, however it is quite laborious and painstaking, requires certain knowledge and preparation, therefore it is rarely used. In addition, when planting seeds with the crop, you have to wait a longer season. In the first year, a low plant will produce small, few nodules, only in the second year it will grow stronger and will be able to please the crop.
Jerusalem artichoke seeds are best planted in pots and grown the first year, like seedlings. In spring, small tubers are dug up and transplanted into the ground.
Jerusalem artichoke is unpretentious, has great growth power. This is a long-term culture, but to obtain high-quality root crops, it is better to grow it as an annual.
In the open ground, the culture can be planted in autumn and spring. The pre-winter landing is carried out several weeks before the establishment of stable cold weather, but no later than the last decade of October. For spring planting, you need to wait for a sufficient warming up of the soil. This usually happens in late April or early May.
If there are many mice or moles on the site who like to feast on Jerusalem artichoke, then it is better to plant in the spring so that pests do not damage the tubers during the winter.
Preparation of soil and planting material
The plant is not picky about the composition and nutritional value of the soil. It feels good on almost any soil except too heavy and very saline. Uncomfortable conditions for the culture are flooded lowlands. Here the roots can rot.
The plot is prepared in advance. It should be dug up on the bayonet of a shovel, seasoned with organics (at least 0.5 buckets per 1 m2) Jerusalem artichoke is recommended to be planted after annual herbs, potatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, grains and legumes. Bad precursors are carrots and sunflowers. They have the same pests and diseases with an earthen pear.
When planning the site, it is necessary to take into account the tallness of the plant and not to place it close to other garden crops. Such a neighborhood can adversely affect other plants: Jerusalem artichoke will obscure them. At a sufficient distance from the plantations of Jerusalem artichoke, you can plant legumes, onions, eggplant, radishes, cabbage. Neighborhood with tomatoes, potatoes, parsley and celery is undesirable. The plant grows well in good light, normally tolerates partial shade planting.
A good place to grow an earthen pear is at the fence, on the leeward side.
Seed material must also be prepared in advance.
- Choose healthy tubers. They should be medium in size, with no signs of damage or disease.
- If the tubers are slightly curled or dried, they are poured with warm water and soaked for a short time (about 10 minutes).
- To disinfect, the tubers are pickled in a dark red solution of potassium permanganate.
- 2 hours before planting, it is recommended to spray the tubers with a solution of a growth biostimulator (for example, Epin-extra) or soak them for several hours in a Zircon solution. Such treatment activates the protective functions of the plant, increases its immunity and preparedness for interaction with an aggressive environment, accelerates the growth of shoots.
How to plant Jerusalem artichoke
Landing is carried out as follows:
- Furrows with a depth of about 15 cm are made on the prepared ridge. The row spacing should be at least 70 cm.
- The tubers are laid out in grooves at a distance of about 40 cm from each other.
- The soil is mixed with bone meal and the grooves are covered with this mixture, forming a small landing ridge above them.
- Ridges abundantly watered.
Jerusalem artichoke care
Care for Jerusalem artichoke is completely standard:
- seedlings are examined and thinned out, as small tubers grow in thickened plantings;
- at the beginning of the growing season, weeds are removed near the plants and the soil is loosened;
- when the seedlings rise by 25-30 cm, it is recommended to spud them and continue to do this periodically. Hilling helps to saturate the roots with oxygen, which is very important for plant health and future good harvest;
in order to get more tubers and increase their mass in August, it is recommended to trim some of the greens and flowers. You can limit yourself to removing buds. In this case, the bush will stop spending nutrients on flowering and will give all its strength to the formation of large and healthy rhizomes.
Jerusalem artichoke refers to crops that have a powerful root system and are minimally dependent on fluctuations and rainfall. It grows well and bears fruit without additional watering and can be content only with rain moisture. If available, watering can only be organized during periods of severe drought. In this case, once every 10 days, 1.5 buckets of water are poured under an adult plant. At air temperatures below 15aboutWith watering Jerusalem artichoke is not recommended.
Jerusalem artichoke is not in great need of additional top dressing. But in order to get a good crop of rhizomes or beautiful rocky landings, enrich the soil and provide the plants with additional nutrition.
Table: recommended top dressing for Jerusalem artichoke
|The timing||Fertilizer||Norm and method of application|
|When preparing the site||Overripe manure or humus||5 kg / 1 m2|
|After germination||Wood ash||Dust the landing|
|Budding period||Green infusion of nettle or dandelion||At least 5 liters for an adult plant|
|With poor culture growth||Nitrogen-phosphorus mineral complex (Ammophos)||According to instructions|
|If a culture has been growing in one place for several years||Peat, wood ash and rotted manure||Mulching plantings with a mixture of spring and autumn|
Adult Jerusalem artichoke plants, reaching 1 m or more, are often tied so that the plant stems do not suffer from the wind, looked more beautiful and compact on the site. If you have several bushes of Jerusalem artichoke growing, then you can tie them separately. To do this, a vertical pole is fastened near each plant and stems are tied to it with a wire or soft rope, preferably in several places.
For large landings, it is possible to arrange support on vertical posts with wire, metal or wooden crossbars.
Growing Jerusalem artichoke at home
If desired or necessary, Jerusalem artichoke can be grown at home. Put it in a large box or pot. For planting one plant, it is necessary to allocate a tank with a depth of about 40 cm and about the same diameter. Landing is as follows:
- At the bottom of the box lay drainage of broken brick, pebbles. You can use sand.
- A layer (about 10 cm) of fertile soil is poured over the drainage. If you take the soil from the garden, then add humus and sand to it. You can buy in a specialized store soil for growing seedlings or flower.
- A tuber is put on the ground and watered with water.
- After that, the tuber is covered with a 10-centimeter layer of earth.
- The box is put in a warm place, the soil is periodically watered.
- As soon as the seedlings appear, they begin to sprinkle the soil into the tank so that about 10 cm of the plant is above the surface. Filling is carried out until the tank is completely filled.
If the soil is well fertilized, then no top dressing is needed. It will be necessary to periodically water and slightly loosen the earth. Now it remains only to wait for the ripening of the crop.
Similarly, you can plant Jerusalem artichoke in a barrel or other container and put it in the open. In this case, you do not have to worry about the fact that the plant will conquer a large territory.
Diseases and pests characteristic of Jerusalem artichoke
Earth pear - a powerful plant, characterized by almost absolute resistance to disease. But under adverse weather conditions and the massive spread of the pathogen, Jerusalem artichoke can get sick with white rot, powdery mildew and alternariosis. Dangerous pests for the culture are slugs, the bear, as well as the larvae of May beetles and nutcrackers.
Table: Jerusalem artichoke diseases
|Disease name||Signs||Causes and conditions for the development of the disease||Methods of prevention and treatment|
|White rot||Low temperature with high humidity.|
|Alternariosis||Hot weather with heavy rain and dew.||Treatment with Bravo, Abiga-peak (according to the instructions).|
|Powdery mildew||White plaque on top of the sheet plate.||Treatment with fungicides Topaz, But, Topsin (according to the instructions).|
Photo gallery: Jerusalem artichoke diseases
- Alternariosis can affect all terrestrial parts of the plant
- Powdery mildew most often affects the plant in the second half of the growing season
- With white rot, diseased stems become covered with growths from the inside and break off
Table: Jerusalem artichoke pests and methods of dealing with them
|Pest||What danger is||Control and Prevention Measures|
|Slug||Destroy leaves, shoots, buds of a plant.|
|Medvedka||Destroys seedlings, damages seed.|
|Wireworm (Nutcracker Beetle Larva)||Damages young stems and tubers of Jerusalem artichoke. Affected plants lag behind in growth, their productivity decreases. Through the moves made, pathogens get into the root crop, causing fungal and bacterial infections.|
Photo gallery: Jerusalem artichoke pests
- Crawling from one plant to another, slugs contribute to the spread of various fungal and viral diseases among crops
- Maybug larvae live deep in the ground, and you can see them only by digging the soil
- Medvedka prefers areas where the soil is quite moist and rich in organic matter.
- Wireworms damage roots, young shoots, stems
Harvesting and storage
To ripen the Jerusalem artichoke tubers need a lot of time - about 4 months. Cleaning ahead of schedule makes no sense: they will be small, tasteless. Only in the first half of autumn an important phase begins in the life of the plant: the juices begin to migrate from the trunk to the root, the root crop acquires juiciness and sweetness. The optimal harvesting time is the second half of October. At this time, you can dig out not the entire crop, but as much as you eat during the winter.
The fact is that the tubers perfectly survive the cold time right in the ground. Even frost to -40aboutHe’s not afraid of him. The maximum that a plant needs for a successful wintering is the cutting of stems and a small cover of the site with snow or an additional layer of land.
In spring, as soon as the soil is thawing, you can begin the second stage of harvesting. In the period of spring vitamin deficiency, useful and nutritious root crops will be very helpful. Jerusalem artichoke, wintering in the garden, becomes softer, tastier and sweeter than its autumn counterpart.
The main problem when leaving Jerusalem artichoke for the winter in the ground are mice and rats living in the ground. They can cause great damage to tubers and leave you without the spring portion of the crop.
Dug up tubers are dried, then sorted. The largest and most juicy are deposited, and small ones are dried, used for freezing and homemade workpieces.
Fresh Jerusalem artichoke can be stored as follows:
- in ground shoulders;
- in an earthen trench lined with fir branches. Jerusalem artichoke is placed in small containers, which are placed at the bottom of the prepared trench. Then they are covered with earth and covered with fir spruce branches, hay or roofing material;
- in the basement or cellar. Jerusalem artichokes are placed in wooden boxes, sprinkled with sand or laid with moss. If the temperature conditions are observed (1-4aboutC) and air humidity (not higher than 90%), the tubers will be protected from drying out and decay;
- on the balcony or loggia. Here tubers are also stored in containers with sand. Root crops are not afraid of slight freezing and will be able to maintain their nutritional and commercial qualities for 2 months;
- in the vegetable box of the refrigerator. Root crops washed and spread out in sealed bags can be stored in the refrigerator for 2-3 weeks.
Video: how to grow Jerusalem artichoke and how it is useful
Reviews of vegetable growers
I like Jerusalem artichoke. Plant for decoration and food. Like along the fences - in July the wall rises, and if fertilized - the forest!
My Jerusalem artichoke grows along the boundary. 3 in 1: hedge, edible tubers and tops in a compost heap. Unpretentious champion.
Indeed, Jerusalem artichoke (or earthen pear) is better not to dig out the whole. It tolerates frosts well. Not everyone knows its beneficial properties. And he is the first assistant to diabetics, removes sugar from the body. On a grater several small tubers and a salad every day is the best medicine!
Jerusalem artichoke is a unique plant. It can be used completely without waste. Flowers are used to make tea. The grass can be brewed and taken in baths; it helps with osteochondrosis and salt deposition. Tubers lower sugar levels in diabetes. The bad thing is that tubers are poorly stored, quickly lose moisture. Therefore, part of the tubers must be dug in the fall, and part in the spring. In the spring they are even tastier. So that Jerusalem artichoke does not grow, you need to plant it like potatoes in the spring, dig or transplant in the autumn. Because the plant is tall, you can plant it as a fence, better from the north side. I know that coffee is made from Jerusalem artichoke, but I haven’t tried it ourselves, we eat it in salads, add it to preparations, and stew with other vegetables.
And I really like his taste. Fresh and juicy. True, no matter how strange it may sound, I prefer to buy it and do not want to plant it. Just once having planted it, we with great difficulty got rid of this plant. Fought with him for several years. It did not work out to dig it out completely. It would seem that in the fall everyone was digging and choosing, and with the advent of spring, Jerusalem artichoke began to aggressively occupy the land.
Delicious and healthy Jerusalem artichoke can be grown without much expense and effort. Plant Jerusalem artichoke and you can enjoy an interesting taste, strengthen your immunity, please your loved ones with chips and desserts from this amazing plant.