Grapes are known and loved in different parts of the world. He is raised both on garden plots and on plantations. The popularity of the plant is explained by the fact that its berries are suitable for making wonderful drinks and confectionery, they make raisins. Useful leaves of grape plants are eaten. One of the best representatives of this culture is the Amur breakthrough grape.
In the wild forests in the Far East and northern regions of China, a variety of grapes called Ussuri, and more often - Amur, grows. It has strong branches, dull wrinkled foliage, acquiring a red-burgundy color in the fall.
The bushes of grapes grow close to streams, rivers. The size of its seedless fruits is about 2 cm. They are painted in dark purple, more reminiscent of black. Grapes have a variety of flavors. There are plants with flowering female or male species. They bloom in late May. Fruits appear on a grape bush having a female type of flower. Bunches ripen by the end of the last decade of September.
Numerous experiments, consisting in crossing local varieties resistant to frost, led to the fact that a new type of grape was obtained, frost-resistant, resistant to disease. Of the wild grape shrubs of the Amur Territory, a world-famous breeder A.I. Potapenko was genetically produced a variety called the Amur Breakthrough. It gave rise to varieties of frost-resistant grape crops.
The Amur breakthrough grape is found under the names Potapenko-7 and Odin.
Description of the grape variety Amur breakthrough
This is a tall plant. The grape bush is developing rapidly. The shoots that appeared in the 1st year first have a green color, darken in the autumn period, acquire a red tint. A lot of shoots are formed. In one season, the bush can grow by 2.5 m. The vine, relying on trellises, walls of buildings, stretches up to 35 m in a few years. The diameter of the trunk can reach 20 cm. The bark is thin, brown. Every year there is an increasing exfoliation.
The leaves are rounded or elongated in shape, with denticles along the edges, reaching 250 mm in length. On the back of the leaf plates is a short, light fluff.
The berries of the Amur breakthrough are round, dark pink, dark blue or purple. A bunch of grapes on average weighs about 300-400 g. The conditions for growing a crop directly affect its mass. Each berry weighs about 4 g. Its size is approximately 15 mm.
The berries are larger than wild grapes, but the increase in size has weakened the dark pigmentation, making them paler.
The skin of the fruit is dense. The taste of juicy sweet pulp is pleasant. The fruits are well transported, not damaged by wasps. The grape variety Amursky breakthrough is close in properties to representatives of the Far Eastern varieties: Amethyst, Triumph, Neretinsky.
Potapenko was able to improve the taste of berries of local wild grapes and make the resulting variety useful both for table consumption and for use as valuable raw materials in the production of quality wines, juices, compotes, and preserves. Essential oils, coffee substitutes, are obtained from berry seeds.
The Amur breakthrough is distinguished by high sugar levels - 23%. This value is significant for a number of southern varieties.
The Amur breakthrough resists frosts better than all grape varieties. In adult plants, the vine can stand in the open air at a temperature of -40 ° C. This quality allows you to grow such grapes in the North, in the Far East. The variety has gained popularity in the regions of central Russia.
Spring frosts of grapes are not terrible. After them, he quickly recovers. Even if individual branches freeze, the shoots that replace them will bear fruit. A feature of the Amur breakthrough grape is the increased need for moisture. The development of the variety is adversely affected by the dry climate, summer drought, so the plant must be watered in a timely manner.
The variety has an average degree of resistance to various diseases, however, it can be exposed to a dangerous fungal disease mildew (downy mildew), characteristic of European grape varieties.
Bunches of grapes ripen by the end of summer. The yield of this variety is good. More than 10 kg of fruits are removed from one bush.
Since the bushes are capable of rapid development, grown perennial plants having a gazebo shape can produce up to 100 kg of crop.
Features of planting and growing
Amur breakthrough grapes are planted in different ways:
A plant derived from seeds may lose the inherent taste of the variety. Moreover, fruiting with this method of planting occurs late: you have to wait from 3 to 5 years. Therefore, it is easier to grow grapes from seedlings or cuttings.
Video: seedlings for planting
When planting, you need to choose a well-lit plot of land, for example, its south, south-west side - grapes like sunlight. It is preferable to plant vines along the border of garden estates. Plants located on the same line will take up less space; they will be better illuminated from all sides by the sun.
During the ripening period, the vine does not tolerate the wind, especially cold. Therefore, they try to cover the plants from the northern edge of the plot with a wall or trees.
Any soil is suitable for growing the Amur breakthrough, but it is preferable to choose loose acidic soils moistened with good drainage. You should not plant grapes in the area where groundwater passes close so that there is no washing of the roots, which is harmful to the crop.
Worse grapes grow on limestone lands, prone to rapid drying. When the soil on the site is alkaline, they add turf soil, peat. If there are buildings nearby, then water from the roofs should not fall on the plant.
On flat land near the ridges must pass grooves to drain water. On fertile soils, the roots of the plant initially develop well, but when the soil is waterlogged, they begin to suffocate. Excessive moisture can be removed using deep holes on the ground with normal natural drainage, possibly creating artificial drainage conditions.
Timing and landing scheme
The culture is planted after drying and warming up the soil. In the southern territories this happens on May 5-20, in the northern regions the time for planting is all June. If the grapes are planned to be planted in two or more rows, then the distance between the rows is 2 m, between the plants - 1.5 m.
Preparing and planting seedlings
As a planting material, annual (two year) seedlings with a well-developed root system, with more than 3 internodes, are used. The main roots of the planting material at the bottom of the cuttings are cut off before planting, leaving 15 cm; remove all diseased, frozen roots.
With an underdeveloped main root system, roots of nodes are left. In this case, instead of a vertical landing, an inclined one is carried out.
Together with the roots, the stalk is shortened, leaving 3–4 lower ripened buds on it. Cropped roots are immersed in a mixture of clay with manure (talker). After that, they take root better. If there is no such mixture, the roots are lowered into a container of water and the plant is left in this condition until planting.
Before planting grape seedlings, they dig a pit or a common trench under each of them with a width of 0.8-1.9 m and a depth not less than the length of the root processes. Below, the soil can be loosened to the depth of a bayonet shovel, the bottom is laid with drainage: sand, gravel, broken brick. Then at the bottom of the pit from the extracted earth, compost (10 kg), superphosphate (300 g), potassium salt (calcium chloride) or fertile forest soil (100 g) a hill-hill is constructed.
A sapling is installed on top of the dais, distributing the roots around the entire circumference. Pour into a recess 10 l of water. Then it is covered with fertilized soil to the very top. The bud located at the bottom of the seedling should be located at the same level with the surface of the earth. Once again, the planted plant is watered so that the soil settles. Above, the sapling is spudded with fertile soil to a height of 4‒5 cm, lay hay, straw. The role of mulch:
- retain moisture in the soil even in hot weather;
- prevent weed growth;
- protect plants from rodents.
The ground under the grapes is regularly loosened. At this time, the mulch is transferred, and at the end of the work is returned back. Near the plants set trellis for support. In the simplest version, this is just a stick to which the vine is tied.
Video: grape growing mistakes
It is necessary to provide for such a trellis design that will stand for a long time and it will not need to be changed.
- Pegs are prepared from long thick branches of acacia or other material. The height of one is about 1.5 m.
- Outside, they are treated with resin to prevent rot. The pegs protruding above the ground can be painted or varnished.
- The pegs are driven into the ground, leaving a gap of 4 m between them.
- To give greater stability to the structure of the first and last peg put additional props.
- Pull the wire or ropes between all the pegs in 2 rows. The location of the first row is 0.3-0.4 m from the surface of the earth. The second row is pulled 0.3 m from the first.
How to care for grapes Amur breakthrough after planting
In dry weather, grapes are watered. In order to accelerate the growth and development of the bush, simultaneously with irrigation, fertilizing slurry diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 5 is performed. Instead of manure, you can use complex fertilizer containing phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium (70 g of fertilizer per bucket of water).
It is possible to simplify the process of watering a plant by installing a pipe with a diameter of 100 mm inside the pit during placement of the appendix in it. Its tip should rise above the top of the soil. Through the hole and water the planted sprout. Water will flow directly to the root system.
Aging vines stimulate, breaking off the resulting stepsons. With the onset of September, the main processes are nipped. In grafted branches, the roots that have arisen on the scion at the point of adhesion of the stock (main shoot) and scion (shoot attached to the main plant) are cut off.
The formation of grape bushes
If the grape bushes are not given the necessary shape in time, then in the process of their development the plant has many additional unnecessary shoots that grow randomly. They harm the future crop by consuming food. Over the years, the formation occurs as follows:
- In the 1st year - no more than 2 strong shoots are taken out of which the base (shoulders) of the bush will consist, the remaining processes, including branches that appear at the places of growth of foliage of the left processes, break off.
- In the spring season of the 2nd year, 2-3 buds should be left on one rod, the rest of the branch should be removed.
- In the 3rd year, 2 of the strongest processes are left on each of the shoulders, they are cut off by 0.5 m, the others are removed. These shoots will be bush sleeves. Over the summer season, 2–3 shoots are grown on each sleeve.
- In the spring of the 4th year, the upper shoot of each sleeve should be left for fruiting, cutting it off after 10–15 buds. The lower shoot is left to replace, cut it off, leaving 3 buds. Shrubs of fruiting and substitution will constitute the fruit link of the bush. In total, 4-6 fruit units should remain on the bush. Thus, next year fruitful shoots will develop from the buds of fruiting shoots, and as a replacement for shoots that have finished fruiting, new 2‒3 shoots will be ready.
Subsequently, grape pruning is carried out similarly: up to 15 buds are left on one of the shoots grown for replacement, intended for fruiting; on another shoot grown for substitution next year - up to 3 buds.
Trimming bushes twice: in the fall before digging a plant, in the spring - after digging it. For fruiting, you need to leave young annual shoots in such quantity that they had from 60 to 100 buds with buds of inflorescences.
In spring, the bushes are freed from shelter, the shoots are cut to replace (2–3 buds), the vines are tied to the trellis. Sleeves with fruit-bearing branches are tied horizontally to the two lower rows of wire, and the shoots that will grow in the summer are tied vertically. During the summer period, all excess shoots and part of the shoots from the shoulders and sleeves are removed from the grape bush.
With the onset of September, in order for the vines to ripen better, chasing is performed, which consists in removing from the shoots the upper part with a height of 3 to 5 internodes (the place of attachment of the leaves). If it is minted too early, when the bush develops, many stepsons will be formed.
What includes the annual grape care Amur breakthrough
Some features of grape care:
- each season begins with the removal of covering material. In the spring, cold often occurs, snow falls. Grapes are a thermophilic culture and soil temperature of at least 8 is required for the formation of juiceaboutC. For the southern regions, such conditions are characteristic of the first decade of May. If you open the grapes early, its branches and buds will begin to dry and die. If it is too late to open the plant, then the buds that have begun to develop can mate, break off when the cover is removed;
- the removal of the covering material is followed by trimming and “dry” (spring) binding to the trellis. Sleeves are tied to the lower part of the support (wire or hemp twine), above the hearth branches;
- before the “dry” garter, the plant is cut to form fruiting branches of the bush. Fruit links of the current year’s harvest consist of shoots that have formed on the knots of substitution. On bushes of four sleeves, about 8 fruit units should be left. To this end, you need to save 2 low-growing shoots on the knots of substitution. The one above should contain at least 15 eyes, the bottom (substitution shoot) - 4-5 eyes. When forming fruit links, it is better to leave shoots located below, so as not to contribute to the growth of older parts of the plant, which will complicate the digging of the bush;
- Autumn pruning of grapes is best done during removal of branches from the trellis. Spring pruning is best done when the buds swell or begin to bloom;
- The Amur breakthrough likes moist soil, it needs timely watering. Water consumption is measured in 3 buckets per adult plant. When watering, you should remember that the culture does not tolerate when the roots are washed. So that the flowers from the plant do not fall during the flowering period, a week before it, the plant does not need to be watered.
Video: Amur breakthrough grape care
Shelter for the winter
Grapes Amur breakthrough refers to frost-resistant varieties. It is not covered at -20 ° C. The exception is young seedlings, which should be closed in the first year after planting.
At lower temperatures, the grapes are covered. It is removed from the trellis for the winter, so that they are covered with snow. Severe frost can destroy up to a third of the branches of culture, but the remaining branches are quite enough for restoration and a good harvest. For this reason, grapes are sometimes grown without pruning.
In our village Amursky breakthrough at 4 winegrowers. We concluded that he loves acidic soils (such in his homeland), climate humidity and warmth, but not heat. We have a forest-steppe, dry, chalky soils, carbonates.floodlight
So far I have one seedling of Odin, if we take the year of rooting, then he is the third year. Waiting for a signal crop. Last year, the bush did not really grow until July - it gave only 2 vines of 70 cm, and it matured after freezing. In the fall, I was too lazy to shelter, just pressed to the ground, but all the buds were wintered In the spring I had to break all the lower and half of the upper. On May 25, growth is already up to a meter and more than half of the shoots with brushes - it’s time to normalize. While I see the prospects of the variety for landscaping the fence - a powerful early growth, high declared winter hardiness and elegant leaf.Sergey Sergeich
Amur Breakthrough (One) - Amur. I have seven years under Peter One grows, ripens even in the open ground on the Smolensk ridges. He covered the first two years for the winter, then stopped, there were no cases of freezing. I don’t make any treatments at all, only in spring with Bordeaux fluid. Mildew, if he gets it, is already after the harvest. The wine is beautiful. I myself am a former Khabarovsk resident, summer in St. Petersburg is far from the same as in Khabarovsk, however, some grape varieties ripen very well. Mostly inside the greenhouse, but also in the open ground, Odin, Boyarinov’s Star, New Russian, Valiant matures. But it is necessary to land on the Smolensk ridges, there is still much less heat here than in Khabarovsk. But there are less diseases.Alexander1955
Grape varieties Amur breakthrough should attract the attention of gardeners. It is good for growing in different climatic conditions, being an unpretentious and frost-resistant crop. In addition, the variety has a stable yield, a memorable taste, large berries and original foliage that adorns the garden.