Adiantum is a tender fern of the Pteris family. His delicate multi-level cascades resemble a mop of beautiful hair. No wonder one of the varieties of adiantum is called "venereal hair." You can meet him on the rocks and rocky shores of the subtropical zone of North America, Africa and East Asia. Thanks to the ease of care, the adiantum has long been loved by domestic flower growers.
Adiantum fern has creeping stems with frequent root processes. The roots themselves in the soil are located vertically. They are covered with tiny red or dark brown scales that resemble a short pile. Double dissected petiole leaves have a drooping shape. A thin and smooth petiole is painted black. Its length is 10-25 cm, depending on the species.
Leaflets are regular or opposite. Shares can be fan-shaped, diamond-shaped or wedge-shaped. Very thin leaves are painted bright green. The segment length is 2.5-3 cm and the width is 1.5-2 cm. Soruses are on the back of the sheet in the form of small dots. Usually they are located along the edges of the veins.
The leaves of the adiantum contain many useful substances. A decoction of them has expectorant and bactericidal properties. The plant is used in traditional medicine and in pharmaceuticals.
171 species were registered in the genus, but until recently only 2-3 species were sold in flower shops at flower shops. Today, the range is slightly expanded. The most popular remains Adiantum Venus Hair. The fern rhizome is covered with dark scales of 1-2 cm long. Twice-cirrus oblong foliage is located on petioles 10-15 cm long. Vaya is 10 cm wide and 25-40 cm long. Teardrop-shaped sporangia are in the upper part of each lobe.
Adiantum is stop-shaped. The plant forms a lacy bush up to 60 cm high. Soft vayi bend in an arc. They consist of oval light green lobes. The edge of the leaves is dissected and narrowed several times.
The most popular decorative variety adiantum frarans. It is known for its high growth rate and a shock of small openwork leaves.
Adiantum finely pubescent. Compact view up to 50 cm high. In twice and thrice cirrus foliage, palmate lobes are visible. The length of the waya is 15-22 cm. Rigid segments of the oval shape are covered with a short pile.
Adiantum is beautiful. The plant forms a sprawling bush up to a meter high. The leaves are triangular in shape and are divided into many thin segments. The shares fit tightly together and form a dense cascading crown.
Adiantum is kidney-shaped. A rather unusual plant with small leathery leaves on separate erect petioles. Soruses are located around the perimeter of the leaf plate. The height of an adult fern is 10-12 cm.
Growing an adiantum out of spores is pretty easy. This method allows you to get a few dozen plants at a time. Sowing is planned for early spring. First you need to prepare a nursery - a shallow box with a drainage layer and disinfected peat soil. Ripe spores are scrubbed with a spoon from a waya onto a sheet of paper. They are dried for 1-2 weeks. Spores are evenly distributed over the surface of the soil without deepening. The earth is sprayed with water and covered with glass. Keep the greenhouse at a temperature of + 20 ... + 21 ° C. Every day, seedlings are ventilated and moisturized. Shoots do not appear too evenly within 1-3 months. Young ferns need bright diffused light. The grown plants no longer need shelter. They are thinned out so that the distance between the adiantums is not less than 2.5 cm. The grown ferns are transplanted into a permanent place for several pieces.
To immediately get a large plant, you can divide the bush into several parts. During the spring transplant, the roots are freed from the ground and cut into delenki. Each should have 2-3 growth points. Sliced areas sprinkled with activated carbon. It is better to plant fern in the ground right away so that the rhizome does not dry out.
Adiantum transplantation is carried out in March-April, until the plant began to actively grow. The fern should be freed from an earthen coma and carefully inspected the roots. Damaged areas are cut off. The pot should be larger than the previous one. The bottom is covered with drainage, and a loose slightly acidic soil mixture is placed on top. It is made up of such components:
- turf land;
- river sand;
- sheet earth.
When transplanting, you do not need to ram the soil too much so that air enters the roots. It is also useful to periodically loosen the surface of an earthen coma.
Even a beginner grower can master the care of the adiantum at home. This flower belongs to unpretentious indoor plants. Ferns prefer the shade of trees and dim sunlight. Under direct rays, the vayas begin to dry and fall. Pots are placed on the northern windowsills or in the back of the room. In summer, you can take the adiantum into a shady garden or to the shore of a pond. The plant needs to be protected from drafts and sharp night cooling. Due to polluted air, the development of fern is greatly slowed down. It must be protected from dust, tobacco smoke and chemicals.
Adiantum does not like heat, he suffers already at + 23 ° C. In winter, it is recommended to lower the air temperature slightly (to + 13 ... + 18 ° C). Cooling below + 10 ° C is detrimental to the plant.
Adiantum needs plentiful watering. It is advisable to always keep the ground slightly moist, however, you cannot flood the roots. Some gardeners prefer to immerse the pot in a basin of water for several minutes, and then allow the excess to drain. In winter, when cooling, watering is reduced.
Adiantum grows well in a humid environment. It is recommended to spray the crown regularly, especially on hot days. Pots with fern are placed near aquariums or ponds. Even in winter, spraying does not stop. In a cool room, you need to moisten the waiy less often so that mold does not develop.
During the summer, 1-2 times a month, the adiantum needs to be fertilized. Universal mineral compounds for indoor plants are added to water for irrigation.
Fern does not need crown formation. It is only recommended to remove dry wai.
Most difficulties in caring for the adiantum are associated with irregular watering and low humidity. If the leaves turn yellow and dry, then the air in the room is too dry. Sluggish and drooping waiy indicate insufficient watering.
If direct sunlight falls on the leaves, they turn pale and become translucent. In the shade, the fern will quickly restore its former brightness.
On delicate leaves you can find traces of aphids, scutes, mealybugs and spider mites. Treatment with insecticides will help get rid of parasites.