Aquilegia - herbaceous perennial, family - Ranunculaceae. The habitat is exclusively the Northern Hemisphere.
Description and Features
From 60 to 120 species are described, 35 of them belong to cultivated, that is, hybrid created varieties, as wild plants in garden conditions, as a rule, do not take root.
The name translated from Latin can be interpreted in two ways:
- Water collecting - catchment (rus.).
- Related to the word "eagle". In some areas the name "eagles" is found.
The plant is one of the few that has a "lotus effect" - the ability to not be wetted by water. Moisture, falling on the surface of the sheet, curls into drops and collects along the edges or in the center.
This property is endowed with lotus, reed, nasturtium and others. The wings of many Lepidoptera - butterflies are arranged by a similar principle.
Greens and shoots in one year cycle go through two phases of vegetation. At the first stage, at the base of the peduncle, at the end of flowering, a bush of leaves is formed in the immediate vicinity of the roots.
In winter, they remain green and die off only in spring, instead of them, new dissected ternate leaves form on towering petioles and then high peduncles.
The flowers of the catchment are drooping, located singly, and are five funnel-shaped petals bordered by spurs, their length varies for different species. It is their presence or absence that serves as the main difference in the difference in the types of aquilegia - in size, length, upward bending.
The colors of the buds can be different: blue, yellow, red. Two-color and terry varieties are described in nature. Flowering of hybrid forms is very diverse.
It is a honey plant. Seeds are small, shiny, dark, poisonous.
A catchment is a plant that is used only in a hybrid form in a landscape design. Wild species are not grown in gardens. Aquilegia bushes are decorative for up to 5 years. Then they need to be replaced with new ones.
Aquilegia flowers from a certain angle look like orchids. For the bizarrely curved shape of the petals, they are compared with slippers of elves.
Recently, the catchment has gained great popularity. It adorns the landscapes of parks and gardens, especially where there are decorative ponds.
Types of Aquilegia
|Alpine||European||The stalk is bare 30-40cm, sticky at the top.|
The leaves are dissected, small.
|Bright blue, from 1 to 5 in inflorescence.||July August|
|Glandular||15-60 cm with a straight stem, pubescent in the upper part.||Cornflower blue, rarely whitish or yellowish, up to 3 pieces on the peduncle.||June - mid-August|
|Common||The stem is branched, height 30-70cm. Leaves on top are light green, below are gray. The plant is poisonous.||Shades of blue, purple, red and pink. Occasionally white.||June July|
|Olympic||The sticky stem is branched at the top. The leaves are elliptical, silver on the back.||The second half of May - early June|
|Dark||The bush is 30-80 cm high. The leaves are gray.||Dark purple. With short spurs. Decorative.||End of May - beginning of June.|
|Blue||American||The stems are branched at the top, spreading. The bush is up to 50 cm wide, up to 70 cm high. The leaves are bluish-green, large - 6 cm.||Semi-double, from white to blue and lilac shades. Large.||25-30 days in may|
|Canadian||Dark dissected serrated leaves, brown stalk. Loves shade and wet places.||Large, with large thick spurs. Carmine red. The core is lemon yellow.||June|
|Golden||Powerful plant. It is still rare in our latitudes. Drought and winter tolerant.||Large, erect, golden.||June July|
|Skinner||The stalk is straight, in the wild, up to a meter high. The leaves are small on short petioles, pubescent below.||Painted in different colors at the same time - scarlet, yellow and green.||Flowering lasts 25-50 days.|
|Fan-shaped||Japanese||Tall plant, ternate leaves on long stalks.||It has a very beautiful transition in color from deep blue, through sky blue to white.||The second decade of May.|
|Hybrid||It came from crossing European and American species.||Height is from 0.5 to 1 meter.||The flowers are large, sometimes without spurs at all. The colors are the most diverse.||Depending on the variety.|
Growing aquilegia from seeds
In the fall, after ripening, seeds can be planted immediately in open ground. These plants reproduce well by self-sowing. Young shoots usually weed out. But if necessary, they can be left for seedlings for subsequent planting instead of obsolete and overgrown bushes.
When grown from seeds, aquilegia will bloom in the second year. It is important to know that after a year the seeds lose their germination.
It is allowed to sow seeds in the spring. Planting material collected no earlier than last fall must be pre-frozen - stratified on the street in the snow or at home in the refrigerator.
Aquilegia is sown in spacious pallets in pre-prepared soil. For the mixture take the same amount of river sand, rotted humus and garden soil. The soil is moistened and slightly tamped. Sprinkle seeds as evenly as possible and cover with a thin layer (3mm) of earth.
Top planting is covered with a dense natural fabric or newsprint and cleaned in a cold place (+ 16 ... +18 0FROM).
Sprouts will hatch for about 2-3 weeks. At the stage of "2 full leaf" seedlings dive.
What time to land
For growing in open ground, grown plants are planted in June. Aquilegia lends itself well to growing from seeds, and you can choose a convenient time for the grower to plant. Before winter, they sow in October, and seedlings are sown in April.
How to plant
The best place for aquilegia is partial shade. The catchment grows well on moderately moist, loose, fertile soils. On 1m2 have 10-12 plants.
It also survives in sunny flowerbeds, only the duration of the flowering of the catchment and the number of buds will be less.
Aquilegia is unpretentious in planting, growing and caring. Watering, weeding, loosening the soil, you need to feed normally, without any difficulties.
It tolerates moderate drought and frosts common for the climatic zone.
This is facilitated by a well-developed and deeply penetrating root catchment system.
Aquilegia is fed twice a season. At the same time, she needs mineral fertilizers: superphosphate, nitrate, potassium salt (50, 25, 15 g) and watering with weak infusion of mullein or bird droppings.
Aquilegia after flowering
After flowering, aquilegia loses its decorative value. To save vitality for a new cycle, ground units are cut. If seeds are needed, the stems with the many-leafed fruit set are left to ripen.
It is important to cut off the fruit-trees before the pods open and spontaneously spill their contents onto the ground.
The plant is frost-resistant and winters well even in northern taiga conditions. Special shelter for the winter is not required. The exception is for old bushes aged 4-5 years.
They are either removed and replaced with young ones, or if for some reason the specimen needs to be preserved, it is covered with a layer of humus, which will help keep the roots from frost.
The catchment is suitable for distillation. It will bloom at home already in the month of April, if you dig up rhizomes in the fall, plant it in large, tall flower pots and put it in the cold, unheated room for the winter until the end of January.
For example, in the basement, garage, closet or porch. Then get and place in a well-lit place at a temperature of + 12 ... +16 0C. The window sill is ideal for these purposes.
Propagated by seeds, cuttings and division of the bush.
For spring cuttings take early spring shoots, while the leaves have not yet fully blossomed. The handle should have at least one internode from which new shoots will form.
Root in the usual way. Soil is chosen loose, a large amount of washed river sand is added to it. Cuttings are soaked in Kornevin, put in boxes under a film, or each is covered with a cut plastic bottle. Watering and airing are moderate.
When the plants take root, they are planted in a permanent place. Low-growing hybrids at a distance of 25 cm, high - 40 cm.
By dividing the catchment is propagated only when absolutely necessary and very carefully. For example, when you need to urgently plant or take to another locality a rare variety.
The deep roots of an adult bush are very difficult to divide without damage. For this, the bush is dug out completely, the roots are well washed, they are allowed to dry slightly, almost all leaves and stems are removed, leaving 2-3 growth points for each estimated share. Cut the root with a sharp garden knife without damaging leaf buds and roots.
The place of the cut is sprinkled with charcoal and carefully planted in prepared wells spilled with water, spreading the roots. "Swing" the catchment will be a long time.
Diseases and pests
|Disease / Pest||Symptoms||Remedial measures|
|Powdery mildew||White, rusty or brown plaque on the leaves, darkening and dying of the ground part.||The infected parts are removed, sprayed with a solution of laundry soap and copper sulphate or with sulfur-containing antifungal drugs.|
|Aphid||Small insects of green color, sticky coating.||Intact bushes are treated with Actellik, Karbofos, yarrow paste. Use and precautions according to instructions.|
|Spider mite||Spider web, insects on the leaves.|