To grow a beautiful garden, you need to know the intricacies of planting fruit crops. For those who want to get their own garden, it is extremely important to have information on how to choose the right time for planting, how to create favorable conditions for seedlings to grow.
How to plan a fruit tree garden
Planting trees and shrubs has its own characteristics. Before disposing of the land, it is recommended to develop a design project in compliance with the proportions of the site and indicating the location of all objects.
There are special computer programs for landscape design that help to plan the site, creating comfortable conditions for all plants and for the life of the owner in this garden.
Even a small suburban area can be turned into a garden. First you need to decide what species you want to plant. In this case, it is necessary to proceed from the characteristics of the climatic zone, soil, and topography of the land.
The most convenient form for planning a garden plot is a rectangle. On the site plan of this form, all structures are marked, the remaining territory is divided into sections with clear boundaries. Sections are planted with fruit crops and ornamental plants, based on the individual preferences of the owner of the site. This planning method is suitable for those with narrow and long sections.
The opposite of the rectangular is the layout of the site in the form of a circle. Its main elements are flowerbeds and lawns, the creation of patios and patios. Straight lines and corners on the site with this design is recommended to hide behind climbing plants.
Plants in the garden
Competently design a round concept will help a professional landscape designer. The easiest way to implement the concept of a circular shape on a square plot.
The option with the diagonal layout of the site is ideal in the case when it is necessary to visually increase the size of a very small area. With a diagonal layout, the house is the center of the composition, from which landings depart at an angle of 45 °. Depending on which direction the lines of garden objects diverge, the effect of a longer or wider section will be created.
If the site has a complex terrain, natural reservoirs, then a free type of layout is suitable for it. This form requires minimal care. However, even for this type of landscape design accents are required.
The distance between the trees when planting fruit trees
Close landing leads to the fact that the roots are in contact. This creates a risk of nutrient deficiency and moisture for one of them.
Distance between seedlings
When determining the distance between seedlings, one must proceed from what an adult tree will be. Pears, apple trees, cherries, apricots grow tall, so the distance between their seedlings should be 5-6 m. For dwarf crops, a sufficient distance between the seedlings will be 3-4 m. It is enough to leave 2 m between the column-like apple trees.
Planting apple trees distance between trees
Attention! Apple tree planting patterns are different in different regions. So, in the southern regions of the Russian Federation, the distance between the seedlings and between the rows is increased, the landing is made chessboard. This is due to soil characteristics.
Dwarf varieties are planted in 1 row at a distance of 2.5-3 m from each other. The gap between the rows should be 4-5 m. When semi-dwarf trees are planted, 4.5 meters are left between the seedlings and between the rows. For tall and tall varieties, the distance between the trees is 5-5.5 m.
Sometimes apple trees are used as hedges along the fence: they are planted in 1 row. If at the same time it is planned to form unusual shapes in the form of arches, then between the seedlings of dwarf varieties it is enough to leave 1.5-2 m. The distance between the seedlings of medium apple trees is 5 m. For tall apple trees, it is necessary to leave 6 meters between the seedlings.
Additional Information. The chess variant of planting apple trees helps rationally use the area of the site. In this case, 1.5 m is left between seedlings of dwarf breeds, 3 m between rows. Semi-dwarf varieties are planted at a distance of 3.5-4 m, leaving 3 m between rows. Tall apple trees on seed stocks are planted at a distance of 5-5.5 m, leaving as much between the rows.
It should be remembered! The chess variant of planting apple trees requires careful and systematic care.
The distance between the trees when planting colon-shaped apple trees
Colon-shaped apple trees grow well in the Moscow Region and in the northern regions of Russia. The norm of the interval between seedlings of this variety is 50 cm. When planting, a columnar apple tree is arranged in rows after 1 m, 30 cm is left between the seedlings. So that each tree receives a sufficient amount of nutrients, the soil is fertilized plentifully before planting.
When to plant trees: in autumn or spring
An apple tree can be planted in spring and autumn. However, in the spring you need to have time to plant a tree, until the leaves appeared. Autumn planting does not require haste, but it is likely that the seedling does not have time to take root before frost.
Dates of planting fruit trees in spring
The best time for spring planting of seedlings is April.
Fertilizer for seedlings of fruit trees
Young seedlings need mineral and organic fertilizers. The most popular additives for a good harvest of apple trees are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. Additionally, you can use fertilizers with calcium, iron, sulfur, manganese. Top dressing should be comprehensive.
Nitrogen is contained in compost, manure, and bird droppings. They are diluted with water in proportions of 1:10. Fertilizers with nitrogen are used in spring, in combination with ammonium nitrate.
In the fall, 4 years after planting, fertilizers with phosphorus and potassium are introduced. Fruit crops can be fertilized with these mixtures during the formation of the fruit ovary or in the spring.
Phosphoric acid is found in fertilizers such as superphosphate. This top dressing is suitable for all fruit trees.
Well-proven drugs such as nitrofoska, compounds "AVA" and "Autumn".
Attention! For weak seedlings, you can not use nitrogen fertilizers, as they will reduce the frost resistance of the tree, prolonging the growth period.
Podzolic and soddy soil is fertilized with ash, adding it to any organic top dressing.
When planting shrubs, consider:
- illuminated area of the sun;
- soil moisture level;
- soil composition.
The distance between the bushes
To determine the optimal distance between the bushes, add the height of 2 adjacent bushes and divide the resulting amount by 3.
The distance between the bushes
Fruit tree compatibility
Table neighborhood fruit trees and shrubs
|Tree, bush||Good compatibility of trees and shrubs||Not suitable for neighborhood|
|Apple tree||Raspberries||Guelder-rose, barberry and all stone fruit bushes|
|Pear||Rowan||Walnut, cedar, viburnum, barberry and all stone fruit bushes|
|Plum||Blackcurrant, elderberry||Pear, apple tree, raspberry|
|Cherry||Sweet cherry plum||Apple tree, raspberry, apricot, currant|
|Apricot||Feels more comfortable alone||Apple tree, plum, cherry, peach|
|Sweet cherry||Apple tree, mountain ash||Getting along with all the trees and shrubs|
|Peach||Feels more comfortable alone||Walnut, pear, apple tree, cherry, cherry|
What fruit trees should not be planted nearby
It is not recommended to have nearby fruit ones that:
- They have common pests, are prone to the same diseases;
- Chemical substances are released into the ground;
- Grow at different speeds. A culture that develops faster will take a large amount of nutrients from the soil.
- Equally love moisture;
- They have a spreading crown, which can lead to a shortage of sunlight.
Important! Coniferous crops adorn the garden, but for fruit trees they are bad neighbors - their branches do not allow fruit trees to receive enough sunlight.
Berry shrub compatibility
Great neighbors will be black and golden currants. Red currants and gooseberries, grapes and raspberries get along well.
Sea buckthorn can be a good neighbor for fruit shrubs. But its roots are growing rapidly, so they are limited to roofing material or slate.
Almost any fruit tree can propagate by air outlets. For layering, healthy young branches are selected that grow from the south, southeast, or southwest. If the branch is tilted, it must be positioned vertically with a guy.
This breeding technology is done like this:
- In early spring, you need to wear a polyethylene sleeve on the branch, the diameter of which is 8-12 cm, length - 35-40 cm. At the base of the branch, the edge of the sleeve must be tightly wrapped with insulating tape. At the end of March, closer to the harness, 2 circular cuts of the bark of the branch should be made until the middle. The distance between the incisions is 1.5-2 cm. The ring of the cortex between the incisions is removed, this place is wrapped with electrical tape.
- Above the annular cuts you need to make 3-5 longitudinal, the length of which will be 10-15 cm, depth - 0.5-1 mm. 1.5-2 liters of boiled water should be poured into the sleeve so that the water covers the incisions. Tie the upper end of the sleeve. The branch will be in the water for 2-3 days.
- A layer of moist nutrient mixture of sheet soil and sifted rotted manure in the proportions of 1: 2 is laid in the sleeve. Tamp the mixture so that no air remains in the sleeve. On top of it lay 2-3 cm of mulch. The edge of the sleeve is bandaged.
- In September-October, a rooted branch is cut and planted in the ground without removing the mixture that was in the polyethylene sleeve. When the seedling is placed in a hole, the sleeve is removed. Sprinkle a hole in the ground, watered. For support, the seedling is tied to a stick.
For the manufacture of cuttings take healthy young shoots with green bark. The cut end of the handle is placed in a container of water. Cold greenhouses 30-35 cm deep are ideal for planting cuttings. A mixture of turf and sand is placed at the bottom, and coarse-grained sand is placed on top.
Cuttings are planted in rows to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. For support, a peg is attached to each cuttings. Between the rows you need to leave 6-10 cm, between the cuttings in a row - 4-5 cm. After planting, the cuttings are watered through a sieve, covered with a frame and create a shadow for them. In the greenhouse maintain a temperature of 20-25 ° C. Rooting occurs after 8-12 days.
When the first shoots go on the cuttings, the greenhouse is ajar. Active growth of shoots indicates that the frame can be removed. At the end of August, you can plant cuttings in open ground. Before frost, seedlings must be spud.
A beautiful garden is the dream of every landowner. In addition to the garden, I also want to have a garden. Knowing the simple rules for planning a garden plot and information about the reproduction and proper planting of fruit crops will help gardeners realize their most cherished dreams.