Horseradish is one of the most beloved spices in Russian cuisine. It not only gives an original note to the taste of meat and fish dishes, sauces and marinades, but is also rich in a variety of vitamins. Any gardener, even a beginner, can grow horseradish.
How to plant horseradish on the site
Horseradish is a vegetable plant belonging to perennial herbs. It has powerful, well-developed rhizomes and large oblong-shaped leaves. It has excellent winter hardiness, drought tolerance and general survivability, therefore it is grown in both European and Asian countries. Often, gardeners grow non-selective ("folk") varieties of horseradish (Suzdal, Valkovsky, Latvian, Rostov), although there are cultivars - Atlant and Tolpukhov, differing in a milder taste and less prone to spread around the site.
The leaves and rhizomes of horseradish contain:
- volatile and essential oils with bactericidal action;
- Vitamin C (up to 0.2 g per 100 g);
- allyl mustard oil (used in cooking and traditional medicine);
- vitamins of group B and PP;
- a large amount of carotene (115 mg per 100 g).
Planting and growing horseradish is easy: it is very unpretentious and hardy - so much so that many consider it a malicious weed and try to prevent the garden from entering. True, this vegetable turns into a weed if it is improperly looked after. Horseradish can remain in one place for 10-12 years, but it is advisable to dig up rhizomes 1-2 years after planting, otherwise the plant "runs wild", the roots branch and go deep, so removing it becomes very difficult.
Most often vegetables are grown in open ground, but you can do this in a greenhouse, if you need to accelerate its maturation.
Despite the sufficient resistance to shading, horseradish still does not like strong shadows, so you need to choose a place for it in the garden away from dense tree or shrub plantings. Many gardeners recommend planting a vegetable along the fence.
Landing dates: in summer and before winter
Horseradish has such a great vitality that it can be planted at almost any time of the year:
- plant cuttings in the spring, when the soil has already thawed (the second half of April is considered the best time). With severe return frosts, cuttings may not take root, so you must wait until the soil temperature is above +5 aboutFROM;
- plant a plant in the fall (second decade of September - mid-October for central Russia). Before frosts should remain 12-14 days. If the autumn is dry, planting will need to be watered. As a rule, plants perfectly take root and tolerate winter well;
- throughout the summer, you can both plant and transplant horseradish. It is advisable to choose a cloudy day and how to water the plantings in order to facilitate rooting. If the weather is very hot and dry, it is better to refrain from planting horseradish in the summer;
- planting horseradish in the winter is possible in late October - early November. To do this, in the first half of October, you need to clear the soil of weeds and plant debris, then dig it deep. Cuttings should be deepened more than during spring planting (3-4 cm) in order to protect against frost.
Planting horseradish cuttings
Horseradish rarely gives seeds, so most often it is propagated by cuttings, which are actually pieces of roots.
Site selection and soil preparation
Before planting horseradish in your area, you need to choose the right place for it. It is advisable to plant the plant in the sun or in partial shade. The soil must have high moisture and air permeability. In principle, horseradish can develop on any soil, but on heavy clay forms bitter and hard, lignified roots, and on sandy it turns out tasteless. To obtain rhizomes of good quality, you need to plant the plant on fertile chernozems, loams, sandy loam or drained peatlands enriched with organic fertilizers.
It’s good to plant horseradish where tomatoes, potatoes and other vegetables used to grow.
You need to prepare the soil in advance: for example, for spring planting, the soil is prepared in the fall. The procedure is as follows:
- Weeds are removed at the selected site, organic fertilizers are scattered and dug.
- In the spring, shortly before planting, another shallow digging is carried out with the introduction of mineral or organic fertilizers:
- potassium and ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, which are mixed in equal proportions - dose of 30 g / m2;
- a bucket of peat and sand on clay soils, as well as 10-12 kg of manure per square meter;
- 0.4-0.5 kg / m2 ash with increased acidity of the soil.
Harvesting and storage of cuttings
Horseradish cuttings can easily be prepared independently. For this:
- When autumn digging from large rhizomes, you need to cut off the annual growth.
- Cuttings should have a length of 20-25 cm and a diameter of 0.5-1.5 cm, all lateral processes and branches should be cut off.
- Top cuttings must be cut at an angle of 90 °, and the bottom - obliquely, so that when planting do not mix up the upper and lower parts.
- Cuttings should be tied in a bunch and placed in the cellar, sprinkled with slightly moistened sand or sawdust, or dug in the garden until spring.
Strong wetting of the substrate can provoke premature root sprouting.
You can prepare the material for planting in the spring when the soil has thawed. Such cuttings should be planted as soon as possible in a permanent place.
The author successfully uses the "lazy" method of horseradish propagation. Given the unique viability of the plant, during the autumn digging of horseradish, you can simply take extra small roots or pieces of roots (at least 8-10 cm long and at least 1 cm thick) and immediately plant them in a new place, deepening by 5-6 cm. With good watering usually even such cuttings root successfully and after 2 years give usable rhizomes.
Preparing cuttings for planting
In spring, pieces of roots begin to prepare for planting:
- For 12-15 days, the cuttings are moved to a place with a higher temperature and covered with a damp cloth or a layer of peat to ensure germination.
- As soon as the cuttings sprout, they blind all the “eyes” in the middle part. To do this, wipe the stalk with a piece of burlap, a rough mitten or a blunt side of the knife blade, leaving only the upper and lower buds for the development of roots and leaf rosette.
Germination can also be done by digging the cuttings in the greenhouse (placed at an angle, oblique cut down).
So prepared cuttings can be planted in the ground.
Video: preparation of planting material - horseradish cuttings
If you don’t have your own planting material, buy a large horseradish rhizome, cut into pieces (3-5 cm in length) and plant in the ground in April. By autumn, planted segments give a young growth, which will serve as planting material.
Another variety of planting material is the apical buds located at the end of the main shoot or lateral process, which are cut off with a piece of rhizome (2-3 cm).
You can also prepare them in the winter, as the buds hatch even on the rhizomes stored in the refrigerator.
The sequence of actions is as follows:
- The material is placed in a container with a fertile substrate and watered until the roots appear.
- Each plant is then transferred to a separate glass or pot.
- Remove excess leaves so that no more than two rosettes remain. This is required in order to provoke root growth.
- Prepared plants are planted in a permanent place, like cuttings, in April.
Planting horseradish in the open ground
When planting horseradish cuttings in open ground, it is advisable to use a seedling peg. With its help, an oblique (30-45 about) deepening the desired length.
The landing process consists of the following steps:
- In the recess made by the seedling peg, the horseradish root is immersed, directing it with an oblique cut down. Plants are planted in rows with a row spacing of 0.7-0.8 m and a gap between adjacent bushes in a row of 30-40 cm.
- The apical kidney is sprinkled with 3-5 cm soil.
- For quick rooting, the soil is slightly compacted with a foot.
As a rule, there are 4-6 plants per square meter.
Video: planting horseradish
Planting horseradish seeds
Horseradish bushes bloom in the second year of life, but usually seeds do not form or appear in very small quantities. Therefore, seed propagation is rare.
If you still collected or bought horseradish seeds, you can use them to grow a vegetable. Horseradish from seeds is grown, like any other winter-hardy crop. Processing and stratification of seeds is not necessary, and preliminary seedling cultivation is not required. Sowing can be carried out immediately in the ground in spring or before winter. The soil must be prepared in advance in the same way as for planting cuttings.
If desired, horseradish seeds can be treated with a growth stimulator before planting, for example, Energen. To do this, 1 ml of the drug is dissolved in 50 ml of water and the seeds are soaked for 6-20 hours.
How to plant horseradish
Horseradish can be planted in the following ways:
- on the raised bed,
- in a bucket or barrel,
- into the "sleeve" of a plastic film.
Most often, horseradish is planted on high beds. This planting method is especially recommended for soils with a thin fertile layer or excessive moisture. The height of the beds should be 25-30 cm: with such planting, the plant does not flood with water during heavy rains and, moreover, the excavation of rhizomes in autumn is facilitated.
Horseradish is planted in a bucket or barrel to limit its "creep" in the garden. The difference between planting in a bucket and in a barrel is only in the number of plants that fit into these containers.
They grow horseradish in a barrel or bucket as follows:
- In an old bucket (barrel), fill the nutrient mixture from compost or humus with soil.
- Bury the filled container in the ground so that the sides rise 2-3 cm above the surface. 2-3 rhizomes can be placed in each bucket, in a barrel 5-6.
- In the fall, the container is removed and turned to the side - while the roots are easily removed and remain intact.
Watering and feeding plants in a barrel or bucket in the summer are carried out according to the general scheme.
Video: how to grow horseradish in a barrel
A sleeve of thick (100 microns) plastic film also prevents the spread of horseradish in the area. The sleeve is chosen so that its diameter exceeds the thickness of the handle by 4-5 times.
- The sleeve is filled with soil, the stalk is placed in it so that the upper end protrudes 1-1.5 cm, and the lower one 2 cm.
- Then the sleeve is dug into the soil at an angle (30-35 °). The film prevents the plant from forming lateral branches, and during the autumn harvest, the rhizome is easily removed.
To get a good harvest for planting you need to properly care for:
- weed out
- loosen the soil
- water and feed.
When the first sprouts of horseradish appear, thinning should be carried out so that only the strongest shoots remain. In July, the rhizomes are dug up and cut off all the lateral roots to a depth of 25 cm, then the roots are again covered with earth, compacted and watered properly.
Loose soil is one of the main conditions for growing horseradish. In total 3 loosening during the summer will be required:
- 7-8 days after disembarkation (depth 3-4 cm);
- then after germination of seedlings (depth 6-8 cm);
- then after another 12-14 days (10-12 cm).
Loosening must be careful so as not to damage the young roots.
Horseradish has good drought tolerance, but watering is necessary for rooting cuttings. It is carried out at first every 7-10 days at the rate of 2-3 l / m2 (in dry weather, watering is more frequent). When the plants take root, they need to be watered only in the absence of precipitation (3-4 l / m2).
Fertilizers do not need to be applied - horseradish develops beautifully without them. If desired, you can feed plantings with complex fertilizers once a month (50 g per bucket of water).
Compatibility with other plants
Horseradish is a rather aggressive plant. He himself easily withstands the neighborhood of other plants; only tomatoes, beans and strawberries are undesirable for him. And it is also advisable not to plant horseradish near trees and shrubs, because tree roots will interfere with the extraction of horseradish rhizomes.
Good neighbors for this vegetable are fragrant herbs and potatoes. It’s even recommended to plant horseradish next to potatoes as a means to deter the Colorado potato beetle. The rhubarb horseradish tolerates well, and for broccoli this plant is good as a precursor.
They can’t stand the horseradish neighborhood:
- Bulgarian pepper;
- scorzoner (Spanish Goat, or black root).
In general, it is best to plant a vegetable that is "not radish sweeter", away from other plants - on the border of the plot or in the corner of the garden - and limit its ability to creep to the sides.
Reviews gardeners planting horseradish
It is advisable to plant horseradish generally separately from all plants or in the corner of the garden and always make sure that it does not shoot to the sides. You can plant it in an iron pan so that it does not grow throughout the garden. It’s easy to breed, but then how to get rid of it? My neighbor, in general, behind the fence under the birch, determined his place. So I use it. As people say: if the mother-in-law greatly annoyed, then he threatens to put horseradish on her grave!
I would not advise to plant horseradish in the garden or in the garden. It’s best to plant it somewhere behind the fence. Horseradish - a plant unpretentious, does not require any special care, or frequent watering. But the roots take such and grows so that then you can’t uproot it without a tractor.
Tata all red
Planting horseradish does not present any difficulties. It is only necessary to choose the right place so that the plant not only develops well, but also does not oppress the other inhabitants of the garden. With proper care, you can get a plentiful harvest of this healthy spicy vegetable every year.