The Kishmish radiant grape variety attracts attention with its delicious and beautiful seedless berries, large clusters and a plentiful harvest. This variety has many advantages, although it was not without drawbacks. However, having become acquainted with the peculiarities of planting and care, even a beginner-grower can grow radiant raisins.
The history of the cultivation of grape varieties Radish
The Kishmish radiant variety was developed by Moldovan breeders about thirty years ago. To obtain this hybrid, 2 varieties were taken as the basis: Cardinal and Pink Kishmish. The main task that the NIIIViV employees faced was to obtain a high-quality variety, and this goal was achieved by them.
Description of the grape variety Kishmish radiant
Grapes of this variety belong to mid-season seedless table varieties with a ripening period of about 130 days. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, grapes with vigorous bushes, a fairly strong vine and a juicy pink berry were obtained. The name of the grapes is "radiant" due to the fact that ripe berries seem to shine under the sun's rays from the inside.
Radiant raisins attract the attention of many wine growers due to a number of advantages:
- features of the vine allow it to be laid on the surface of the earth and sheltered for the winter;
- providing protection against frost, the variety can be cultivated in regions with a harsh climate;
- seedless berries, sweet, juicy and fleshy;
- almost 70% of the shoots are fruitful, in addition, the vine ripens well;
- bunches are large, which allows you to collect a good crop from one bush;
- the thick peel of the berries provides good transportability, besides the bunches have a presentation;
- long-term storage of fruits on the bush.
Despite the many positive qualities, Radiant Kishmish has its drawbacks:
- clusters with a large weight (more than 1 kg) lead to breaking branches;
- for the winter period, the vine needs careful shelter;
- the need to protect plants from mildew and phylloxera;
- fruits due to their sugar content attract wasps;
- with large clusters (over 50 cm), the berries ripen poorly;
- competent care for the bush is needed.
Characteristics of grapes
Radiant raisins have medium or tall bushes. The leaves of the variety are dissected, medium sized, rounded. A grape brush often exceeds 40 cm in length and has an average weight of 0.5 kg. With good care, the mass of the bunch exceeds 1 kg. Fruits of medium size 2.5 * 2.2 cm and an average weight of 3-4 g. The shape of the berries is elongated-oval with pink-red skin. The pulp is dense with a characteristic harmonious taste and a light musky tint. Sugar content of berries is in the range of 17-21%.
Features of planting and growing grape varieties Kishmish radiant
The key to a good harvest of radiant raisins is proper planting and careful care. Otherwise, the taste of the berries will suffer, and in the worst case, the plant may die at all.
To plant grapes of this variety, it is necessary to choose a site where the plant will feel spacious. The distance between the bushes in the row should be at least 2 m, between the rows from 3 m. Since radiant deer is a pollinator for varieties such as Flamingo, Laura, Rapture red, it is necessary to alternate these plants when planting. One of the features of this Kishmish, unlike other grape varieties, is the need to plant in a well-ventilated area.
Planting crops can be carried out in spring or autumn. As for the timing, you should focus on local climatic conditions. In spring, culture is planted from the third decade of April to the third decade of May. First, lignified seedlings are planted, later they deal with green cuttings. In the autumn procedure, culture can be planted from the beginning of October until the first frost. A feature of planting in the autumn is the need for thorough protection of plants from the upcoming cold weather.
Before proceeding with the planting of seedlings of the considered variety, it is necessary to perform several steps to prepare the planting material:
- The root system of seedlings is soaked for at least a day in water or growth stimulants, for example, potassium or sodium humate.
- After soaking, the shoots are trimmed for 2-4 eyes.
- Before planting, seedlings should not be left in the fresh air, so it is preferable to use a wet cloth or a container with clay mash (liquid clay).
- Due to the powerful root system, a pit for landing is made with dimensions of about 0.8 * 0.8 m.
Video: preparing grape seedlings for planting
It’s best to prepare the landing pit in the fall or at least a month before planting seedlings. As a nutrient soil using a soil mixture of the following composition:
- black earth or topsoil - 5 buckets;
- ash - 1 l;
- manure - 4 buckets;
- phosphate fertilizer - 150 g.
The process of planting grape seedlings is reduced to the following actions:
- A 10 cm drainage layer of crushed stone or broken brick is poured into the pit.
- All prepared components are filled up in such a quantity that 50 cm remain to the edges of the pit. Then they are thoroughly mixed and well shed with water so that the earth settles.
- After absorbing moisture, the seedling is planted, evenly distributing the root system.
- They fill the landing pit to the edges, for which land from the lower layers, which remained after digging the pit, is suitable.
Experienced growers in the planting pit insert a piece of pipe through which in the future will be irrigated and fertilized.
Video: spring planting of grapes
Radix raisins require regular and moderate watering, the volumes of which directly depend on the type of soil and weather conditions. If the crop is cultivated on chernozem soils, then 5-6 buckets per plant will be quite enough. For sandy soils, about 10 buckets of water will be required. Between irrigation it is necessary to maintain an interval of 3-4 days. If the weather is rainy, watering should be delayed.
The variety described Kishmisha responds well to additional nutrition. It is important to understand that increasing yields through fertilizing is possible only if the fertilizers are in a form accessible to plants. Many winegrowers use wood ash as a feed, trying to make up for the lack of phosphorus and potassium. However, it must be understood that these elements are inactive and will reach the root system no earlier than 3-4 years under the influence of heavy irrigation and rainfall. From this we can conclude that the best option for fertilizing the vineyard is liquid nutrient solutions.
In spring, the culture is fed with ammonium nitrate (2 tbsp. Per 10 liters of water), usually at the beginning of the growing season, and a little later use the same solution, but with the addition of 1 tbsp. l potassium sulfate. Grapes respond well to foliar top dressing. The plant receiving such elements as zinc, boron, manganese, helps to increase productivity by 15-20%. It is recommended to feed the green leaf with a borax solution (5 g per 10 l of water). Every 2-3 years after harvesting, the soil is fertilized with organic fertilizers (compost, mullein).
Fertilizers should not be abused, because when overfeeding, the shoots will fatten, flowering will linger, and the ovaries will form weakly.
A correctly formed bush of Radiant Kishmish should have up to eight shoots per 1 meter linear. Sometimes it is possible to increase their number to 10. Between the branches of the bush it is recommended to leave a distance of at least 1 m. In most cases, pruning for 8-12 eyes is used for this variety. The result is the following: if the culture is adult, then on an area of 4-6 m² there will be about 20-25 shoots, and on a young plant - no more than 12.
When forming a culture, it is necessary to leave a large supply of wood. Pruning of the vine is carried out based on its age. If the sleeve is young, then cut no more than 2-3 eyes, and on the old sleeve you can safely cut up to 14 eyes. On the bush to leave more than 35 eyes of the total load is not worth it. With the right approach to formation, at the end of the procedure, the bush should have no more than 4 vines with a length of about three meters. The upper part of the shrub will be fruitful, and the lower part will form the sleeves.
Do not forget about rationing the crop and leave no more than two brushes on one shoot, as there may be a lack of potassium, and the fruits will lose their sweetness and become smaller. In addition, cracking of berries and later ripening is possible. If we neglect the load distribution and leave too many grapes, then next year the crop may be of poor quality (small and with a loss of taste of the berry) or it will not exist at all. This is due to the fact that the plant will need rest.
Video: grape bush formation
Radiant raisins are not frost-resistant, so before the onset of winter colds, you need to take care of the shelter of the bush. The procedure is carried out at a temperature drop of -5-7 ° C. Such temperature indicators contribute to hardening of the bush. For protection, you can use various improvised materials, such as slate, needles, straw mats, earth, with preliminary digging of trenches. It is not recommended to use tyrsa, since it leads to soil acidification.
Shelter for grapes must be organized in such a way that when freezing melt water, icing of plant rhizomes can be avoided. The young vine, which has sufficient flexibility, is bent to the ground and covered with material. Larger shoots are insulated with straw mats, and for large branches they make houses from boards or slate.
Video: sheltering grapes for the winter
When fruiting occurs
One of the questions that interests beginner winegrowers, when does radiant kishmish begin to bear fruit? It may seem surprising, but the crop of this variety with proper care and pruning can be obtained the next year after planting. Of course, its amount will be minimal, of the order of several clusters, but still it will be possible to taste this grape.
Diseases and Pests
Variety Kishmish radiant, like many other European varieties, needs preventive measures against diseases. Experienced growers recommend that you adhere to the following rules, the observance of which will preserve the health of your vine:
- During the season, the bushes are treated 4 times with fungicides (Quadris, Topaz, Strobi, Bordeaux liquid).
- The fight against mildew is carried out using solutions of Nitrafen or iron sulfate, following the instructions for the use of drugs.
- Against bacterial-fungal infection, Bordeaux fluid, Polychome or copper chloroxide (3%) are used.
- If oidium is found on the bushes, a solution of colloidal sulfur (100 g per 10 liters of water) is used.
- In winter, the surface of the earth around the vineyard is sprayed with Nitrafen or iron sulfate (3%).
Pest insects can also damage the bushes of the Kishmish radiant and damage the crop. To avoid spoilage of berries, the clusters must be removed on time, avoiding overripening of the fruit. The variety in question can be attacked by the following pests: leafworm, fleas, weevils, etc. In this case, the use of such drugs as Nitrafen, Fozalon, Chlorophos will be required.
Video: grape diseases and their control
Gardeners reviews about the variety
Kishmish Radiant - delicious and beautiful grapes! Its clusters simply amaze the imagination with the sizes - when I first saw the brush, I did not immediately believe that SUCH can be grown if you live not in the southern regions! But the size of the bunch plays a cruel joke with the variety - the bunch does not have time to ripen completely, so it needs to be shortened by 1/3 even during flowering. And this variety also has one drawback - not very high frost resistance of the root system, but, fortunately, this drawback can be easily eliminated - you only need to plant a twig on a frost-resistant stock. Otherwise, grapes are super!Helena
I am very pleased with Kishmish radiant, the undisputed leader of Kishmish, steady, productive, pink and also nutmeg. Plus it's a grade and not a gf. I always get a crop, in contrast to the annually bursting Veles (vomits 4 years in a row mercilessly). I think an undeservedly forgotten variety. Many moving away from military classics regret and then uproot new items that turned out to be with hidden pitfalls.zrt
In our farm, Radish kishmish has been growing since the 90s. Own root, I did not see any sores during profiling. It amazes with strong growth and a response to good care. Last year, the numbers were realized on August 15 (earlier the end of August), apparently, the temperature regime played a role. Despite the description of frost resistance, I can say: this winter it was -35 ° C (double-film shelter), Bulgarian raisins worried about it, grow nearby. Radiant raisins bloom like never before.Peter
Having made the decision to plant radiant Kishmish, you will have to take care of the formation of a bush, sheltering grapes for the winter, provide him with timely prevention and protection from diseases and pests. Only in this case can one count on normal development and good fruiting for many years.