There are many varieties of tomatoes that can be easily grown at home. The culture is not susceptible to attack by pests, bad weather conditions and will bring a good harvest.
The growing process is no more difficult than for tomatoes from the garden, it is only important to choose a suitable variety that even in winter can pamper the host with fresh fruits.
Pros and cons of growing tomatoes on a windowsill
The main advantage is the ability to grow crops all year round and at the same time know the exact maturity. This allows you to plant a crop for a specific date, holiday. The main difficulty lies only in the selection of a suitable hybrid. The disadvantages include relatively small planting volumes, due to the modest dimensions of the window sills and, as a result, the modest yield volumes.
The method of selecting a hybrid is based on constant trial and error, it is caused by individual climatic conditions in each room. On a small windowsill, these undersized and dwarf varieties will feel great.
It is represented by a bush reaching a height of not more than 30 cm. Its fruits, collected in small clusters of 8 samples each, weigh up to 40 g each.
Low culture with small tomatoes, which are collected in a brush for 15-20 pieces. They are very sweet, a single fruit weighs up to 40 g.
The most common home variety. Its pink-colored tomatoes ripen 2.5-3 months after planting. The fruits are not large - 20-30 g each.
It is formed by a very fruitful bush, growing up to 30 cm. Mini tomatoes are bright red, they will grow 3 months after planting. It is noteworthy that the fruits of this variety exude a strong aroma.
Will bring in each of its ripening 500-600 g of tomatoes. The bush of this undersized crop does not grow above 30 cm. Representatives of the variety do not need insects to transfer pollen, as they are self-pollinated.
It is considered the smallest among cherry tomatoes. The average size of the bush is only 15 cm. Often it is hung in a basket, has a more decorative purpose.
He will give his first crop 3 months after planting. The hybrid is fruitful with small fragrant tomatoes.
It grows to half a meter in height. Fruits are small, mostly yellow in color, grow after 3.5 - 4 months. Rounded, sweet taste.
Pearl red or yellow
It is famous for its decorative parameters. It grows to 0.5 m and bears fruit in small red tomatoes. A single copy can weigh up to 50 g, it tastes sweet.
Bears 180 g each. They have a characteristic crimson hue. It is famous for its unpretentiousness - it is able to tolerate coolness, it belongs to an early form.
Fruits rounded tomatoes up to 150 g piece. The variety will calmly endure a sharp change in weather and temperature conditions.
It is preferable to plant in the north-western areas. Tomatoes on it grow to 100 g.
It is represented by bushes up to 60 cm tall. It is noteworthy for its large aromatic fruits weighing up to 300 g. It is recommended to start with 2-3 species for comparison, and then plant those that most like the climate of the apartment.
For tomatoes, sowing dates are divided into:
- Summer-Autumn. Fruits from seedlings grown no later than August will ripen in November or December.
- Winter-spring. Tomatoes ripen in the early to mid-spring, while in winter you need to start growing seedlings. November and early December are great.
In light-loving plants, buds will begin to fall off when there is a lack of lighting, so it is preferable to place them on the balcony or windowsill on the south side. Strong sunlight can harm a young plant, therefore, after lunch - during the period of the greatest activity of the sun, it is worth shading the bush or transferring it to the east or west. Also, tomatoes are recommended additional light, the best option is fluorescent lamps. It’s worth placing an artificial source, observing a minimum distance of 30 cm from the plant. The lack of light in the morning and evening should be compensated, not forgetting that for tomatoes, daylight hours should last about 15 hours.
Future yield directly depends on the method of caring for the plant. There are nuances that vary among varieties, but the basic rules are very similar.
What soil to plant
Loose and fertile soil is ideally suited for tomatoes, as it sufficiently passes moisture and air. It consists of chernozem, humus and peat with sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 1. Or mixed in equal proportions compost with forest land, you can also just buy soil in the store. However, before planting seeds in it, the soil should be decontaminated by calcining it or watering it with a solution of manganese and phytosporin.
Presowing seed treatment
The procedure includes:
Soaking is done to kill pathogens. The operation takes 30 minutes. Then it is recommended to wash the seeds in filtered water.
Germination is carried out in a damp gauze cloth or cotton pad. After the material is covered with polyethylene and placed for 2-3 days in a warm place until germination.
The hardening procedure is applicable to seeds that have already begun to hatch, but have not yet sprouted. It increases the resistance of the culture to temperature extremes. Sequencing:
- Wrap seeds in gauze;
- Put in a container;
- Tie in a bag without completely blocking the oxygen;
- To stand in the refrigerator at night, and to pull out in the afternoon;
- Repeat the operation 4-5 times.
Step-by-step seeding procedure at home:
- Pour soil into the container;
- Draw grooves or make small pits, up to 2 cm deep;
- Keeping a distance of 2-3 cm, lay out the seeds;
- Sprinkle the crops with earth;
- Humidify with a spray gun;
- Cover with foil;
- Leave in a warm, dark place;
- Rearrange in a bright place and remove the film from the container when the seeds sprout.
3-4 weeks after sowing, the first leaves should appear in tomatoes and in order to provide the root system with enough space - it is necessary to transplant the plant into a larger container.
Transplanting seedlings in a large pot
Final transplantation is performed a few weeks after the first dive. At this time, the plant should have already acquired more than a dozen leaves. For the convenience of transplanting - the day before it is necessary to water abundantly.
Caring for tomatoes on the windowsill: basic rules and conditions for growing
In order for the fruit to ripen in a timely manner, the plant needs to be provided with watering, feeding and regular ventilation of the room, they will have a beneficial effect on the development of the bush.
Temperature and humidity
A favorable temperature range is + 22 ... +26 ° С during the day, and + 15 ... +16 ° С at night. At the same time, the recommended level of humidity is 65%. In winter, pots with bushes should be somewhat removed from the glass, as they can be damaged by the cold air coming from the window.
With increased dryness, wetting by spraying is allowed. However, at low temperatures, excessive moisture provokes a number of diseases. Spraying is a necessity exclusively for foliar feeding, processing of tomato from ailments and pests.
Feeding and watering
It is necessary to exclude the ingress of liquid on the stems when watering. Its regularity is 2 times in 10 days. Perfectly maintained and filtered water. During the flowering period, watering is suspended until the ovaries appear. Mineral fertilizers should be applied for the first time no earlier than 20 days after the dive. The best option is potassium humate, diluted on the recommendation of the manufacturer. Feeding should only be on the second day after watering, the frequency of feeding - 1 time in 2 weeks. For adult bushes, both root and top dressing of leaves is allowed, but such a fertilizer is contraindicated for young tender seedlings.
Shaping (pinching) and tying
Due to the stable trunk and the absence of branching, there is no need to tie home-grown tomato varieties. In rare cases, this still happens, for which you need:
- Carefully drive a peg into the soil without damaging the root;
- Tie up the branches.
It is necessary to remove the shoots formed in the axils of the leaves. Otherwise, the bush will increase its deciduous mass, but will not bring a rich harvest. After the formation of the ovaries, the top is pinched, and the lower, decayed leaves are cut off.
Diseases and Pests
The most effective way to combat insect pests and ailments of a plant is timely prevention. Regular inspection of the bush and taking immediate action if the first symptoms are detected will also greatly facilitate the task of treatment. The plant is effectively treatable only at the initial stages of the development of the disease, then it will become almost impossible to get rid of the disease.
|Disease / pest||Reason / manifestations||Prevention / Remedy|
|Late blight||It is distributed mainly by air. The leaves of the diseased plant are covered with dark brown spots, then the spotting affects the stems and fruits, resulting in the complete destruction of the crop.||As a preventative measure, it is worth soaking the seeds in a solution of manganese before germinating. Already young bushes can be treated with Bordeaux liquid.|
|Blackleg||The cause of the fungal disease is excessive crop density and poor lighting. The first symptoms are the blackening of the stem, then the whole plant is deformed, it lays on the soil and ends in death.||An admixture of ash and sand in the soil is an excellent prevention of the disease. If the disease has already managed to develop, it is necessary to use fungicidal preparations.|
|Septoria||It is distributed exclusively by soil. The leaves of the affected tomato become spotty, covered with black dots, then dry.||A potassium permanganate solution is able to disinfect the soil as a preventive measure. For treatment, treatment with Bordeaux liquid is suitable.|
|Brown spotting||This disease provokes excessively moist soil. The leaves are covered with brown spots, the normal development of the bush and its fruits is disturbed.||Processing with specialized chemicals.|
|Whitefly||The appearance of the insect pest resembles small scales. Having stuck to a leaf - is a threat as a spread of infections.||Fertilizing the soil will increase resistance, while the pest and its larvae should be disposed of with a soap solution or dandelion tincture.|
|Thrips||The activity of these pests leads to the drying of buds, leaves and further death of the latter.||Regular watering and insecticide treatment will help thrips.|
Mr. Dachnik recommends: the use of hydroponics in growing tomatoes at home
If the plant roots are surrounded by a nutrient solution, thereby creating an artificial environment, then it will successfully grow without soil. The method is applicable to tomatoes, as they have a superficial root system. Hydroponic solution is simple enough to purchase in a store, or to make it yourself from various fertilizers. Then they need to fill a large container and put a small one in it. Pre-cook the mass of the following components:
- Expanded clay;
- Mineral wool;
- Coconut flakes.
Disinfect and fill the internal container with the mixture, plant a plant in it.